כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה רֵד בֵּית־מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וְדִבַּרְתָּ שָׁם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 22:1
Jere. 22:1 Thus said the Lord: “Go down to the house of the king of Judah and you shall speak this word there,
וְאָמַרְתָּ שְׁמַע דְּבַר־יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד אַתָּה וַעֲבָדֶיךָ וְעַמְּךָ הַבָּאִים 22:2 בַּשְּׁעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃
Jere. 22:2 and say, ‘Hear the word of the Lord, king of Judah, who sits on the throne of David, you and your servants and your people who enter through these gates!’
כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עֲשׂוּ מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה וְהַצִּילוּ גָזוּל מִיַּד עָשֹׁוק וְגֵר יָתֹום וְאַלְמָנָה אַל־תֹּנוּ אַל־תַּחְמֹסוּ 22:3 וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקֹום הַזֶּה׃
Jere. 22:3 ‘Thus says the Lord: ‘Execute justice and righteousness, and deliver any despoiled from the hand of an oppressor, and the sojourner, the orphan, or the widow, do no wrong, do no violence to, and do not shed innocent blood in this place.’
עַל־כִּסְאֹו כִּי אִם־עָשֹׂו תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וּבָאוּ בְשַׁעֲרֵי הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה מְלָכִים יֹשְׁבִים לְדָוִד 22:4 רֹכְבִים בָּרֶכֶב וּבַסּוּסִים הוּא (וְעַבְדָו) [וַעֲבָדָיו] וְעַמֹּו׃
Jere. 22:4 ‘For if you indeed do this thing, then David’s kings remaining on his throne shall enter through the gates of this house, riding in chariots and on horses, he and his servants and his people.’
A vav is missing in the word in parentheses, translated as his servants. As spelled it is singular, his servant. The correction is in the brackets.
וְאִם לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בִּי נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי־לְחָרְבָּה יִהְיֶה הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 22:5
Jere. 22:5 ‘But if you do not heed these words, I swear to Myself,’ declares the Lord, ‘that this house shall be for a waste land.’
מִדְבָּר כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה עַל־בֵּית מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה גִּלְעָד אַתָּה לִי רֹאשׁ הַלְּבָנֹון אִם־לֹא אֲשִׁיתְךָ 22:6 עָרִים לֹא (נֹושָׁבָה) [נֹושָׁבוּ]׃
Jere. 22:6 ‘For thus says the Lord about the house of the king of Judah:
‘You are Gilead to Me,
the height of Lebanon;
nevertheless I shall make you
a wilderness of cities of no habitation.’
The word in parentheses is assumed to be in error. The last phrase, when the assumed correction is made (in the brackets), is usually translated as a wilderness of cities not inhabited. This is certainly reasonable, but I think my translation, which assumes no error, reads better.
וְקִדַּשְׁתִּי עָלֶיךָ מַשְׁחִתִים אִישׁ וְכֵלָיו וְכָרְתוּ מִבְחַר אֲרָזֶיךָ וְהִפִּילוּ עַל־הָאֵשׁ׃ 22:7
Jere. 22:7 ‘So I shall dedicate destroyers against you,
each and his weapons,
and they shall cut down
the best of your cedars
and make them fall upon the fire.’
וְעָבְרוּ גֹּויִם רַבִּים עַל הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְאָמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־רֵעֵהוּ עַל־מֶה עָשָׂה יְהוָה כָּכָה לָעִיר 22:8 הַגְּדֹולָה הַזֹּאת׃
Jere. 22:8 ‘Then many nations will pass over this city and they will say, everyone to his neighbor, ‘For what reason did the Lord do like so to this great city?’
וְאָמְרוּ עַל אֲשֶׁר עָזְבוּ אֶת־בְּרִית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיַּעַבְדוּם׃ 22:9
Jere. 22:9 ‘And they shall say, ‘For the reason that they forsook the covenant of the Lord, their God, and bowed down to other gods and served them.’
אַל־תִּבְכּוּ לְמֵת וְאַל־תָּנֻדוּ לֹו בְּכוּ בָכֹו לַהֹלֵךְ כִּי לֹא יָשׁוּב עֹוד וְרָאָה אֶת־אֶרֶץ מֹולַדְתֹּו׃ 22:10
Jere. 22:10 ‘Do not weep for someone dead
and do not grieve for him.
Weep sorely for the departing one,
for he shall not return again
or see the land of his birth.’
כִּי כֹה אָמַר־יְהוָה אֶל־שַׁלֻּם בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה הַמֹּלֵךְ תַּחַת יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ אָבִיו אֲשֶׁר 22:11 יָצָא מִן־הַמָּקֹום הַזֶּה לֹא־יָשׁוּב שָׁם עֹוד׃
Jere. 22:11 ‘For thus says the Lord concerning Shallum son of Josiah, king of Judah, who reigned in place of Josiah, his father, who went forth from this place: He shall not return there any more;
There has been no mention of this Shallum to this point in the bible. Although he is mentioned by name as the fourth son of Josiah in 1Chronicles (1Chr. 3:15), no where else is his name to be found other than here, although several other Shallums are mentioned later in various books of the bible. There is considerable conjecture as to who he was. Some assume he was Jehoahaz; others, Johoiakim; still others, Jehoiachin. And reasons are offered for each of these choices. So I will offer my suggestion. My first choice is Jehoahaz, who reigned after Josiah’s death, but only for three months. In 2Kin. 23:30, 31 his short reign is described in two verses. I imagine he could have changed his name when he ascended the throne. But it could also have been Eliakim, who is described starting with 2Kin. 23:34. His name was changed to Johoiakim (same king as above) by Pharoah after he was placed on the throne by him.
כִּי בִּמְקֹום אֲשֶׁר־הִגְלוּ אֹתֹו שָׁם יָמוּת וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לֹא־יִרְאֶה עֹוד׃ 22:12
Jere. 22:12 for in the place where they took him captive, there shall he die and he shall not see this land again.’
This verse supports my first choice. It was Jehoahaz who was taken away captive to Egypt and he died there.
הֹוי בֹּנֶה בֵיתֹו בְּלֹא־צֶדֶק וַעֲלִיֹּותָיו בְּלֹא מִשְׁפָּט בְּרֵעֵהוּ יַעֲבֹד חִנָּם וּפֹעֲלֹו לֹא יִתֶּן־לֹו׃ 22:13
Jere. 22:13 ‘Woe to the builder of his house
and of his upper rooms without justice,
he would work his neighbor without pay,
so he would not give him his wages,
הָאֹמֵר אֶבְנֶה־לִּי בֵּית מִדֹּות וַעֲלִיֹּות מְרֻוָּחִים וְקָרַע לֹו חַלֹּונָי וְסָפוּן בָּאָרֶז וּמָשֹׁוחַ בַּשָּׁשַׁר׃ 22:14
Jere. 22:14 who says, ‘I will build for myself
a sizable house and wide upper rooms,
and will cut my windows for it,
and it will be paneled with cedar
and painted in vermilion!’
הֲתִמְלֹךְ כִּי אַתָּה מְתַחֲרֶה בָאָרֶז אָבִיךָ הֲלֹוא אָכַל וְשָׁתָה וְעָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה אָז טֹוב לֹו׃ 22:15
Jere. 22:15 ‘Shall you reign because
you are striving to excel in cedar?
Your father did not eat and drink
but accomplished righteousness and justice,
still it was good for him?’
דָּן דִּין־עָנִי וְאֶבְיֹון אָז טֹוב הֲלֹוא־הִיא הַדַּעַת אֹתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 22:16
Jere. 22:16 ‘He judged the cause of the poor and the needy; that was good. Is that not to know Me?’ declares the Lord.’
כִּי אֵין עֵינֶיךָ וְלִבְּךָ כִּי אִם־עַל־בִּצְעֶךָ וְעַל דַּם־הַנָּקִי לִשְׁפֹּוךְ וְעַל־הָעֹשֶׁק וְעַל־הַמְּרוּצָה לַעֲשֹׂות׃ 22:17
Jere. 22:17 ‘But are not your eyes and your heart
concerned only with your own profit
and over shedding innocent blood,
and about violence,
and about oppression, to do?’
אָחֹות לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהֹויָקִים בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה לֹא־יִסְפְּדוּ לֹו הֹוי אָחִי וְהֹוי 22:18 לֹא־יִסְפְּדוּ לֹו הֹוי אָדֹון וְהֹוי הֹדֹה׃
Jere. 22:18 ‘Therefore thus says the Lord concerning Jehoiakim son of Josiah, king of Judah:
‘They shall not lament for him,
‘Ah my brother!’ or, ‘Ah sister!’
They shall not lament for him,
‘Ah lord!’ or, ‘Ah his majesty!’
קְבוּרַת חֲמֹור יִקָּבֵר סָחֹוב וְהַשְׁלֵךְ מֵהָלְאָה לְשַׁעֲרֵי יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 22:19
Jere. 22:19 ‘He shall have the burial of an ass,
dragged and cast off
from outside the gates of Jerusalem.’
Because of these two verses, 22:18 and 19, I think it less likely that Shallum was Jehoiakim.
עֲלִי הַלְּבָנֹון וּצְעָקִי וּבַבָּשָׁן תְּנִי קֹולֵךְ וְצַעֲקִי מֵעֲבָרִים כִּי נִשְׁבְּרוּ כָּל־מְאַהֲבָיִךְ׃ 22:20
Jere. 22:20 ‘Go up to Lebanon and cry out!
And extend your voice in Bashan!
And cry out from Abarim!
For all your lovers have been destroyed.’
דִּבַּרְתִּי אֵלַיִךְ בְּשַׁלְוֹתַיִךְ אָמַרְתְּ לֹא אֶשְׁמָע זֶה דַרְךֵּךְ מִנְּעוּרַיִךְ כִּי לֹא־שָׁמַעַתְּ בְּקֹולִי׃ 22:21
Jere. 22:21 ‘I spoke to you during your prosperity.’
You said, ‘I will not listen’.
This has been your way since your youth,
that you do not listen to My voice.’
כָּל־רֹעַיִךְ תִּרְעֶה־רוּחַ וּמְאַהֲבַיִךְ בַּשְּׁבִי יֵלֵכוּ כִּי אָז תֵּבֹשִׁי וְנִכְלַמְתְּ מִכֹּל רָעָתֵךְ׃ 22:22
Jere. 22:22 ‘All your shepherds the wind shall feed,
and your lovers shall go into captivity;
only then might you be ashamed
and embarrassed by all your wickedness.’
יֹשַׁבְתִּי) [יֹשַׁבְתְּ] בַּלְּבָנֹון (מְקֻנַּנְתִּי) [מְקֻנַּנְתְּ] בָּאֲרָזִים מַה־נֵּחַנְתְּ בְּבֹא־לָךְ חֲבָלִים חִיל כַּיֹּלֵדָה׃ 22:23
Jere. 22:23 ‘O inhabitant in Lebanon,
nestled among the cedars!
How shall you be pitied
when pangs come to you,
a pain as in childbirth?’
The two errors in this verse, both in the parentheses (please forgive the absence of the first right parenthesis), are of the same type and form -- ending with a yad. It’s the kind of error that Jeremiah seems to make fairly frequently. The yad should not be there. The respective corrections are in the two sets of brackets.
חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אִם־יִהְיֶה כָּנְיָהוּ בֶן־יְהֹויָקִים מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה חֹותָם עַל־יַד יְמִינִי כִּי מִשָּׁם 22:24
Jere. 22:24 ‘As I live,’ declares the Lord, ‘even if Coniah son of Jehoiakim were king of Judah, a signet on My right ‘hand,’ still would I pluck you up from there
וּבְיַד נְתַתִּיךָ בְּיַד מְבַקְשֵׁי נַפְשֶׁךָ וּבְיַד אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה יָגֹור מִפְּנֵיהֶם וּבְיַד נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל 22:25 הַכַּשְׂדִּים׃
Jere. 22:25 and give you into the hand of the seekers of your life, and into the hand of whom you are fearful, and into the hand of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, and into the hand of the Chaldeans.’
תָּמוּתוּ׃ וְהֵטַלְתִּי אֹתְךָ וְאֶת־אִמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר יְלָדַתְךָ עַל הָאָרֶץ אַחֶרֶת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֻלַּדְתֶּם שָׁם וְשָׁם 22:26
Jere. 22:26 ‘And I will cast you out, and your mother who bore you, to another country where you were not born, and there you shall die.’
וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הֵם מְנַשְּׂאִים אֶת־נַפְשָׁם לָשׁוּב שָׁם שָׁמָּה לֹא יָשׁוּבוּ׃ 22:27
Jere. 22:27 ‘But to the land where they will be desiring their souls to return, there they shall not return.’
וְהֻשְׁלְכוּ הַעֶצֶב נִבְזֶה נָפוּץ הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה כָּנְיָהוּ אִם־כְּלִי אֵין חֵפֶץ בֹּו מַדּוּעַ הוּטֲלוּ הוּא וְזַרְעֹו 22:28 עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדָעוּ׃
Jere. 22:28 ‘Is this man Coniah a broken despised vessel?
A utensil without pleasure in it?
Why are they cast out, he and his seed,
and thrown up to the land
of which they have no knowledge?’”
אֶרֶץ אֶרֶץ אָרֶץ שִׁמְעִי דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 22:29
Jere. 22:29 “O land, land, land!
Hear the word of the Lord!”
אִישׁ יֹשֵׁב כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה כִּתְבוּ אֶת־הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה עֲרִירִי גֶּבֶר לֹא־יִצְלַח בְּיָמָיו כִּי לֹא יִצְלַח מִזַּרְעֹו 22:30 עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וּמֹשֵׁל עֹוד בִּיהוּדָה׃
Jere. 22:30 Thus says the Lord:
“Inscribe this man as childless,
as a man who cannot prosper in his days,
for anyone of his seed
set on the throne of David cannot prosper
and be ruling any more in Judah.”
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