וַנֵּפֶן וַנַּעַל דֶּרֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן וַיֵּצֵא עֹוג מֶלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁן לִקְרָאתֵנוּ הוּא וְכָל־עַמֹּו לַמִּלְחָמָה אֶדְרֶעִי 3:1
Deut. 3:1 “Then we had to turn and go up by way of Bashan, and Og, the king of Bashan, came out to meet us, he and all his people, for the battle of Edrei.”
The first two words in this verse contain first-person imperfect verbs with non-inverting vav prefixes. They are translated by me as Then we had to turn and go up.
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי אַל־תִּירָא אֹתֹו כִּי בְיָדְךָ נָתַתִּי אֹתֹו וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמֹּו וְאֶת־אַרְצֹו וְעָשִׂיתָ לֹּו כַּאֲשֶׁר 3:2
עָשִׂיתָ לְסִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר יֹושֵׁב בְּחֶשְׁבֹּון
Deut. 3:2 “And the Lord said to me, ‘You need not fear him, for I have delivered him and all his people and his land into your hand; and you shall do to him as you did to Sihon, king of the Amorite, who had been dwelling in Heshbon.’”
וַיִּתֵּן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ בְּיָדֵנוּ גַּם אֶת־עֹוג מֶלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁן וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמֹּו וַנַּכֵּהוּ עַד־בִּלְתִּי הִשְׁאִיר־לֹו שָׂרִיד 3:3
Deut. 3:3 “So the Lord, our God, also delivered Og, king of Bashan, and all his people into our hand, so we could smite him until there was not a remnant of him left.”
The sixth-from-last word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as so we could smite him.
וַנִּלְכֹּד אֶת־כָּל־עָרָיו בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֹא הָיְתָה קִרְיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־לָקַחְנוּ מֵאִתָּם שִׁשִּׁים עִיר כָּל־חֶבֶל אַרְגֹּב 3:4
מַמְלֶכֶת עֹוג בַּבָּשָׁן
Deut. 3:4 “So we could take all his cities at that time. There was not a city that we did not take from them, sixty cities, all the region of Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan.”
The first word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as So we could take.
כָּל־אֵלֶּה עָרִים בְּצֻרֹות חֹומָה גְבֹהָה דְּלָתַיִם וּבְרִיחַ לְבַד מֵעָרֵי הַפְּרָזִי הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד 3:5
Deut. 3:5 “All these were fortified cities, of high walls, gates, and bars; apart from the cities, the unwalled villages were many more.”
וַנַּחֲרֵם אֹותָם כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂינוּ לְסִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ חֶשְׁבֹּון הַחֲרֵם כָּל־עִיר מְתִם הַנָּשִׁים וְהַטָּף 3:6
Deut. 3:6 “But we could utterly destroy them as we did to Sihon, king of Heshbon, utterly destroying every city, the men, the women, and the little ones.”
The first word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as But we could utterly destroy.
וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּשְׁלַל הֶעָרִים בַּזֹּונוּ לָנוּ 3:7
Deut. 3:7 “And all the cattle and the spoil of the cities we took away for ourselves.”
וַנִּקַּח בָּעֵת הַהִוא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ מִיַּד שְׁנֵי מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן מִנַּחַל אַרְןֹן עַד־הַר חֶרְמֹון 3:8
Deut. 3:8 And we could take the land that was on the other side of the Jordan from the hand of the two kings of the Amorite at that time, from the valley of Arnon as far as Mount Hermon.
The first word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as And we could take.
צִידֹנִים יִקְרְאוּ לְחֶרְמֹון שִׂרְיֹן וְהָאֱמֹרִי יִקְרְאוּ־לֹו שְׂנִיר 3:9
Deut. 3:9 The Sidonians gave the name Sirion to Hermon and the Amorite gave the name of Senir to it,
כֹּל עָרֵי הַמִּישֹׁר וְכָל־הַגִּלְעָד וְכָל־הַבָּשָׁן עַד־סַלְכָה וְאֶדְרֶעִי עָרֵי מַמְלֶכֶת עֹוג בַּבָּשָׁן 3:10
Deut. 3:10 all the cities of the plain and all of Gilead and all of Bashan as far as Salcah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.
כִּי רַק־עֹוג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן נִשְׁאַר מִיֶּתֶר הָרְפָאִים הִנֵּה עַרְשֹׂו עֶרֶשׂ בַּרְזֶל הֲלֹה הִוא בְּרַבַּת בְּנֵי עַמֹּון 3:11
תֵּשַׁע אַמֹּות אָרְכָּהּ וְאַרְבַּע אַמֹּות רָחְבָּהּ בְּאַמַּת־אִישׁ
Deut. 3:11 For only Og, king of Bashan, had been left from the remnant of the Rephaim -- behold, his bed was a bed of iron -- is it not with the Rabbah of the children of Ammon? -- nine cubits was its length and four cubits its width, in the cubit of a man.
The four verses from v. 3:8 to v. 3:11 are interjections by a scribe. I say this primarily because of the phrase in v. 3:8 that I’ve attributed to the scribe before: “... the other side of the Jordan.”
וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת יָרַשְׁנוּ בָּעֵת הַהִוא מֵעֲרֹעֵר אֲשֶׁר־עַל־נַחַל אַרְןֹן וַחֲצִי הַר־הַגִּלְעָד וְעָרָיו נָתַתִּי 3:12
Deut. 3:12 “And we possessed this land at that time, from Aroer, which is by the valley of Arnon, and half of the hill country of Gilead, that I gave its cities to the Reubenite and to the Gadite,
וְיֶתֶר הַגִּלְעָד וְכָל־הַבָּשָׁן מַמְלֶכֶת עֹוג נָתַתִּי לַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט הַמְנַשֶּׁה כֹּל חֶבֶל הָאַרְגֹּב לְכָל־הַבָּשָׁן 3:13
הַהוּא יִקָּרֵא אֶרֶץ רְפָאִים
Deut. 3:13 and the rest of Gilead and the whole of Bashan, the kingdom of Og, I gave to the half tribe of Manasseh, all the territory of Argob to all Bashan; it would have been given the name the Land of the Rephaim.”
יָאִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה לָקַח אֶת־כָּל־חֶבֶל אַרְגֹּב עַד־גְּבוּל הַגְּשׁוּרִי וְהַמַּעֲכָתִי וַיִּקְרָא אֹתָם עַל־שְׁמֹו אֶת־ 3:14
הַבָּשָׁן חַוֹּת יָאִיר עַד הַיֹּום הַזֶּה
Deut. 3:14 “Jair son of Manasseh took all of the territory of Argob as far as the border of the Geshurite and the Maacathite and called them by his name, with Bashan, Havoth-jair, until this day.”
וּלְמָכִיר נָתַתִּי אֶת־הַגִּלְעָד 3:15
Deut. 3:15 “And I gave Gilead to Machir.”
וְלָרֻאוּבֵנִי וְלַגָּדִי נָתַתִּי מִן־הַגִּלְעָד וְעַד־נַחַל אַרְנֹן תּוֹךְ הַנַּחַל וּגְבֻלוְעַד יַבֹּק הַנַּחַל גְּבוּל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן 3:16
Deut. 3:16 “And to the Reubenite and to the Gadite I gave some of Gilead and as far as the valley of Arnon, the middle of the valley then a border, and as far as the Jabbok -- the river is the border of the children of Ammon –
וְהָעֲרָבָה וְהַיַּרְדֵּן וּגְבֻל מִכִּנֶּרֶת וְעַד יָם הָעֲרָבָה יָם הַמֶּלַח תַּחַת אַשְׁדֹּת הַפִּסְגָּה מִזְרָחָה 3:17
Deut. 3:17 and the Arabah, with the Jordan then the border from the Chinnereth and as far as the sea of the Arabah, the Sea of Salt, beneath the slopes of Pisgah to the east.”
וָאֲצַו אֶתְכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נָתַן לָכֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְרִשְׁתָּהּ חֲלוּצִים תַּעַבְרוּ 3:18
לִפְנֵי אֲחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־בְּנֵי־חָיִל
Deut. 3:18 “And I had to command you at that time saying, ‘The Lord, your God, has given this land to you to possess it. Armed men, you shall pass over before your brothers, the children of Israel, all children of valor.’”
The first word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as And I had to command.
רַק נְשֵׁיכֶם וְטַפְּכֶם וּמִקְנֵכֶם יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־מִקְנֶה רַב לָכֶם יֵשְׁבוּ בְּעָרֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָכֶם 3:19
Deut. 3:19 “But your wives and your little ones and your cattle (I know that there are many cattle for you) shall stay in your cities that I gave to you.
Perhaps here Moses is acknowledging (in the parentheses) the miracle I first mentioned in relation to Exod. 16:3.
עַד אֲשֶׁר־יָנִיחַ יְהוָה לַאֲחֵיכֶם כָּכֶם וְיָרְשׁוּ גַם־הֵם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נֹתֵן לָהֶם בְּעֵבֶר 3:20
הַיַּרְדֵּן וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ לִירֻשָּׁתֹו אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָכֶם
Deut. 3:20 until the Lord will give rest to your brethren, like you, and they also possess the land that the Lord, your God, has given to them on the other side of the Jordan; then you may return each of you to his possession that I gave to you.”
Here the phrase “the other side of the Jordan” is spoken by Moses, and he is referring to the land west of the Jordan. This is not an interjection by the scribe.
וְאֶת־יְהֹושׁוּעַ צִוֵּיתִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר עֵינֶיךָ הָרֹאֹת אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם לִשְׁנֵי 3:21
הַמְּלָכִים הָאֵלֶּה כֵּן־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לְכָל־הַמַּמְלָכֹות אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹבֵר שָׁמָּה
Deut. 3:21 “And I commanded Joshua at that time saying, ‘Your eyes have been seeing all that the Lord, your God, has done to these two kings; so shall the Lord do to all the kingdoms through which you will be going.’”
In the preceding verse, Moses was addressing Joshua. In this verse he is again addressing the children of Israel. The numbers of the first-person pronouns in the two verses inform me of this fact.
לֹא תִּירָאוּם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא הַנִּלְחָם לָכֶם 3:22
Deut. 3:22 “You shall not fear them, for the Lord your God is the One Who will be fighting for you.”
וָאֶתְחַנַּן אֶל־יְהוָה בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר 3:23
Deut. 3:23 “And I would seek favor with the Lord at that time saying,
The first word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as And I would seek favor.
אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה הַחִלֹּותָ לְהַרְאֹות אֶת־עַבְדְּךָ אֶת־גָּדְלְךָ וְאֶת־יָדְךָ הַחֲזָקָה אֲשֶׁר מִי־אֵל בַּשָּׁמַיִם 3:24
וּבָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה כְמַעֲשֶׂיךָ וְכִגְבוּרֹתֶךָ
Deut. 3:24 ‘My Master, O Lord, You have begun to show Your servant Your greatness and Your mighty hand. Who is the god in heaven or on earth who can bring to pass anything like Your works or like Your mighty acts?’
“You have begun to show ... Your greatness and Your mighty hand ...?” What is this? Why is Moses quoted as diminishing or ignoring the Lord’s mighty works until that time? How can the word begun be used here? Is this another oversight by the scribe? The Hebrew word that I translate as begun (the fourth word) has several other meanings as well. They are to profane, to defile, to pollute, to desecrate, to wound, and to pierce. Obviously none of these other meanings is appropriate here.
אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּובָה אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן הָהָר הַטֹּוב הַזֶּה וְהַלְּבָנֹון 3:25
Deut. 3:25 ‘Let me go over, I pray You, and see the good land that is on the other side of the Jordan, that good hill country, and Lebanon.’”
The second word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as and [let me] see.
וַיִּתְעַבֵּר יְהוָה בִּי לְמַעַנְכֶם וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלָי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי רַב־לָךְ אַל־תֹּוסֶף דַּבֵּר אֵלַי עֹוד בַּדָּבָר 3:26
Deut. 3:26 “But the Lord passed over me because of you and did not listen to me, and the Lord said to me, ‘Let it be enough for you! You must not continue to speak to Me any more about this matter.’
Once again, note that Moses, as he did in Deut. 1:37, inappropriately blames the people for the Lord’s “displeasure” with him. Remember, in Numb. 20:12 and Numb. 27:13,14 the Lord plainly states why Moses would not be crossing the Jordan. [Return to Deut. 4:21]
עֲלֵה רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה וְשָׂא עֵינֶיךָ יָמָּה וְצָפֹנָה וְתֵימָנָה וּמִזְרָחָה וּרְאֵה בְעֵינֶיךָ כִּי־לֹא תַעֲבֹר אֶת־ 3:27
Deut. 3:27 ‘Go up to the top of Pisgah and lift your eyes westward and northward and southward and eastward, and see with your eyes, but you will not cross over this Jordan.’
וְצַו אֶת־יְהֹושֻׁעַ וְחַזְּקֵהוּ וְאַמְּצֵהוּ כִּי־הוּא יַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה וְהוּא יַנְחִיל אֹותָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ 3:28
Deut. 3:28 ‘Then charge Joshua and encourage him and strengthen him, for he will cross over before this people and he will cause them to inherit the land that you shall see.’”
וַנֵּשֶׁב בַּגָּיְא מוּל בֵּית פְּעֹור 3:29
Deut. 3:29 “And we had to dwell in the valley opposite Beth-peor.”
The first word in this verse contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is translated by me as And we had to dwell.
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