וְזֹאת תֹּורַת הָאָשָׁם קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא 7:1
Levi. 7:1 “And this is the law of the guilt offering: It is holiest of holy things.”
בִּמְקֹום אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחֲטוּ אֶת־הָעֹלָה יִשְׁחֲטוּ אֶת־הָאָשָׁם וְאֶת־דָּמֹו יִזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב 7:2
Levi. 7:2 “In the place where they will slaughter the burnt offering, they shall slaughter the guilt offering, and he shall dash its blood against the altar all around.”
Judging from past verses, the “they” in this verse are the people presenting, and slaughtering, the offerings, and “he” is the priest.
וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבֹּו יַקְרִיב מִמֶּנּוּ אֵת הָאַלְיָה וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה אֶת־הַקֶּרֶב 7:3
Levi. 7:3 “And he shall offer all its fat from it, the fat tail and the fat covering the innards;
וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹת 7:4
Levi. 7:4 and the two kidneys and the fat that is on them that is by the loins, and the protrusion over the liver with the kidneys, he shall remove them.”
וְהִקְטִיר אֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה אָשָׁם הוּא 7:5
Levi. 7:5 “And the priest shall make them smoke on the altar, a fire offering to the Lord. It is a guilt offering.”
כָּל־זָכָר בַּכֹּהֲנִים יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּמָקֹום קָדֹושׁ יֵאָכֵל קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא 7:6
Levi. 7:6 “Every male among the priests may eat of it. It shall be eaten in a holy place. It is holiest of holy things.”
This verse essentially repeats Levi. 6:22, albeit with some differences, in accordance with the apparently usual practice of the scribe.
כַּחַטָּאת כָּאָשָׁם תֹּורָה אַחַת לָהֶם הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בֹּו לֹו יִהְיֶה 7:7
Levi. 7:7 “As it is for the sin offering, so it is for the guilt offering, one law for them. The priest who shall make atonement with it, it shall be his.”
וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־עֹלַת אִישׁ עֹור הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לַכֹּהֵן לֹו יִהְיֶה 7:8
Levi. 7:8 “And the priest offering the burnt offering of anyone, the hide of the burnt offering that was offered by the priest shall be his.”
וְכָל־מִנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תֵּאָפֶה בַּתַּנּוּר וְכָל־נַעֲשָׂה בַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת וְעַל־מַחֲבַת לַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתָהּ לֹו תִהְיֶה 7:9
Levi. 7:9 “And every meal offering that will be baked in the oven, and everything prepared on the flat plate and on the pan by the priest offering it, shall be his.”
וְכָל־מִנְחָה בְלוּלָה־בַשֶּׁמֶן וַחֲרֵבָה לְכָל־בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן תִּהְיֶה אִישׁ כְּאָחִיו 7:10
Levi. 7:10 “And every meal offering, mingled with oil or dry, shall be for all the sons of Aaron, one as well as another.”
וְזֹאת תֹּורַת זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב לַיהוָה 7:11
Levi. 7:11 “And this is the law of the sacrifice of the peace offerings that will be offered to the Lord.”
אִם עַל־תֹּודָה יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ וְהִקְרִיב עַל־זֶבַח הַתֹּודָה חַלֹּות מַצֹּות בְּלוּלֹת בַּשֶּׁמֶן וּרְקִיקֵי מַצֹּות 7:12
מְשֻׁחִים בַּשָּׁמֶן וְסֹלֶת מֻרְבֶּכֶת חַלֹּת בְּלוּלֹת בַּשָּׁמֶן
Levi. 7:12 “If one should offer it because of thanksgiving, unleavened cakes mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers spread with oil, or fine flour cakes made thick, mingled with oil, shall be offered with the sacrifice of thanksgiving.”
עַל־חַלֹּת לֶחֶם חָמֵץ יַקְרִיב קָרְבָּנֹו עַל־זֶבַח תֹּודַת שְׁלָמָיו 7:13
Levi. 7:13 “He shall present his offering of thanksgiving with cakes of leavened bread with the sacrifice of his peace offerings.”
Well! Is this an error? Leavened bread for an offering of thanksgiving, a peace offering? In Levi. 2:11 we were told that no leaven shall be used to make smoke. How shall we account for this? Obviously, that verse means that none of these cakes are to be burned. Strictly speaking, they are not meal offerings in the sense of Chapter 2. They are only to be eaten by the priests. In only one other place in the Torah is leaven for an offering mentioned. In Levi. 23:17, it is to be brought with the first fruits.
וְהִקְרִיב מִמֶּנּוּ אֶחָד מִכָּל־קָרְבָּן תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן הַזֹּרֵק אֶת־דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים לֹו יִהְיֶה 7:14
Levi. 7:14 “And from it, one from each offering, a gift to the Lord shall be presented to the priest scattering the blood of the peace offering; it shall be his.”
וּבְשַׂר זֶבַח תֹּודַת שְׁלָמָיו בְּיֹום קָרְבָּנֹו יֵאָכֵל לֹא־יַנִּיחַ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר 7:15
Levi. 7:15 “And the flesh of the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offerings shall be eaten in the day of his offering. None of it shall remain until morning.” [Return to Levi. 22:30]
וְאִם־נֶדֶר אֹו נְדָבָה זֶבַח קָרְבָּנֹו בְּיֹום הַקְרִיבֹו אֶת־זִבְחֹו יֵאָכֵל וּמִמָּחֳרָת וְהַנֹּותָר מִמֶּנּוּ יֵאָכֵל 7:16
Levi. 7:16 “But if his offering is a vow or a freewill offering of sacrifice, it can be eaten in the day of his offering his sacrifice and on the next day, so the remainder of it may be eaten.”
וְהַנֹּותָר מִבְּשַׂר הַזָּבַח בַּיֹּום הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף 7:17
Levi. 7:17 “And the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burned in fire.”
וְאִם הֵאָכֹל יֵאָכֵל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו בַּיֹּום הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לֹא יֵרָצֶה הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתֹו לֹא יֵחָשֵׁב לֹו פִּגּוּל 7:18
יִהְיֶה וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת מִמֶּנּוּ עֲוֹנָהּ תִּשָּׂא
Levi. 7:18 “And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings would be eaten on the third day at all, it shall not be accepted from whoever was offering it; it shall not be regarded for him, it shall be foul, and the soul of whoever shall be eating from it shall bear its iniquity.”
Regarding the end phrase of this verse, the iniquity is that of the soul, not that of the abominable flesh. This is ascertained from the genders of the nouns and associated pronouns. The flesh is masculine and so is the “it,” the fourth word from the end, but the soul is feminine and the “its,” which is the second word from the end, is also feminine. Thus the soul of the eater of the flesh on the third day will bear the iniquity. [Return to Levi. 19:8]
וְהַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע בְּכָל־טָמֵא לֹא יֵאָכֵל בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף וְהַבָּשָׂר כָּל־טָהֹור יֹאכַל בָּשָׂר 7:19
Levi. 7:19 “And the flesh that shall come in contact with anything unclean shall not be eaten. In fire it shall be utterly burned. But flesh, any clean flesh, may be eaten.”
The bibles I am familiar with have a different translation for the last part of this verse. The typical translation is something like, “As for the flesh, everyone clean may eat the flesh.” To me this translation makes little sense in light of the earlier statements in this verse. And, after all, these verses are supposed to make sense. The first parts of the verse speak of unclean flesh. Why would the last part of the verse say everyone clean may eat the flesh? One who is clean may eat unclean flesh? And after it’s been utterly burned? Not so! The commentators seem to take no notice of this incongruity. However, one must make an assumption about the form of the verb translated by me as may be eaten. The verb must be assumed to be in the passive form called niphal as opposed to the active form called qal. As it stands the same word appears earlier in this verse and there it is translated appropriately as niphal. I humbly assert that this one should have been assumed to be of the same form.
וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַל בָּשָׂר מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתֹו עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא 7:20
Levi. 7:20 “Then any one who would eat flesh of a sacrifice of the peace offerings that is for the Lord and his uncleanness is on him, then that soul shall be cut off from its people.”
וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִגַּע בְּכָל־טָמֵא בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם אֹו בִּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אֹו בְּכָל־שֶׁקֶץ טָמֵא וְאָכַל מִבְּשַׂר־ 7:21
זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר לַיהוָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ
Levi. 7:21 “And when any one would come in contact with any uncleanness, with the uncleanness of a human or with an unclean beast, or with any unclean detestable thing, and shall eat of the flesh of a sacrifice of the peace offerings that is for the Lord, then that soul shall be cut off from its people.”
It seems as if v. 7:21 merely expands on v. 7:20. But there may be more here than meets the eye. This verse appears to describe some of the ways that the one mentioned in v. 7:20 can bring uncleanness on himself. It fails, however, to mention the other ways in which he can become unclean, all of which involve some form of illness or other outward sign. The ways of becoming unclean mentioned in this verse all produce no visible signs, so they rely on the integrity and faithfulness of the priest. So as I see it, this verse clarifies v. 7:20 in that it is directed toward the inner being, the conscience, of each priest.
וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר 7:22
Levi. 7:22 And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,
דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר כָּל־חֵלֶב שֹׁור וְכֶשֶׂב וָעֵז לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ 7:23
Levi. 7:23 “Speak to the children of Israel saying, ‘You shall not eat any fat of ox or sheep or goat.’
וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ 7:24
Levi. 7:24 ‘And the fat of an already dead animal, and the fat of a ravaged beast, may be used for any purpose, but by no means shall you eat it.’
כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל חֵלֶב מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיב מִמֶּנָּה אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הָאֹכֶלֶת מֵעַמֶּיהָ 7:25
Levi. 7:25 ‘If anyone would be eating the fat from the beast of which one might offer a fire offering to the Lord, then the soul of him eating shall be cut off from its people.’
This verse clarifies and restricts the application of Levi. 3:17 to the fat of any type of animal that could be offered in sacrifice.
וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכְלוּ בְּכֹל מֹושְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לָעֹוף וְלַבְּהֵמָה 7:26
Levi. 7:26 ‘And you shall not eat any of the blood of fowl or of beast in any of your dwellings.’
כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַל כָּל־דָּם וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ 7:27
Levi. 7:27 ‘Any one who shall eat any blood, then that soul shall be cut off from its people.’”
Verses 7:26 and 7:27 are an expansion of the command found in Gene. 9:4, but these are specifically for the children of Israel.
וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר 7:28
Levi. 7:28 And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,
דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו לַיהוָה יָבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנֹו לַיהוָה מִזֶּבַח שְׁלָמָיו 7:29
Levi. 7:29 “Speak to the children of Israel saying, ‘Whoever shall be presenting a sacrifice of his peace offerings to the Lord shall bring his offering to the Lord from the sacrifice of his peace offerings.’
יָדָיו תְּבִיאֶינָה אֵת אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה אֶת־הַחֵלֶב עַל־הֶחָזֶה יְבִיאֶנּוּ אֵת הֶחָזֶה לְהָנִיף אֹתֹו תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה 7:30
Levi. 7:30 ‘His hands shall bring the fire offerings of the Lord; they shall bring the fat on the breast with the breast to wave it. You shall wave before the Lord.’
וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְהָיָה הֶחָזֶה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו 7:31
Levi. 7:31 ‘And the priest shall make the fat smoke on the altar, but the breast shall be for Aaron and for his sons.’
וְאֵת שֹׁוק הַיָּמִין תִּתְּנוּ תְרוּמָה לַכֹּהֵן מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיכֶם 7:32
Levi. 7:32 ‘And you shall give the right thigh from the sacrifices of your peace offerings as an offering to the priest.’
הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב מִבְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לֹו תִהְיֶה שֹׁוק הַיָּמִין לְמָנָה 7:33
Levi. 7:33 ‘Whoever from the sons of Aaron will be offering the blood of the peace offerings and the fat, for him shall be the right thigh for a portion.’”
Please take note: In the numerous verses in which Aaron’s sons are mentioned, the implied generalization is that future generations are also being addressed. In this verse it is obvious that future generations are the intended subject.
כִּי אֶת־חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְאֵת שֹׁוק הַתְּרוּמָה לָקַחְתִּי מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיהֶם וָאֶתֵּן אֹתָם 7:34
לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וּלְבָנָיו לְחָק־עֹולָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל
Levi. 7:34 “For I have taken the breast of waving and the thigh of heaving from the children of Israel from their sacrifices of peace offerings, and have given them to Aaron, the priest, and to his sons, for an everlasting due from the children of Israel.”
I am assuming that in this verse the Lord has interrupted His instructions to Moses and now adds an explanation of His instructions in the previous three verses. In the next two verses He resumes His instructions.
זֹאת מִשְׁחַת אַהֲרֹן וּמִשְׁחַת בָּנָיו מֵאִשֵּׁי יְהוָה בְּיֹום הִקְרִיב אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לַיהוָה 7:35
Levi. 7:35 “’This is a consecrated portion of Aaron, and a consecrated portion of his sons, from the fire offerings of the Lord, on the day He brought them near to be priests to the Lord,
אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה לָתֵת לָהֶם בְּיֹום מָשְׁחֹו אֹתָם מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל חֻקַּת עֹולָם לְדֹרֹתָם 7:36
Levi. 7:36 that the Lord has commanded to give to them on the day of His anointing them from the children of Israel. It is a law forever for their generations.’”
זֹאת הַתֹּורָה לָעֹלָה לַמִּנְחָה וְלַחַטָּאת וְלָאָשָׁם וְלַמִּלּוּאִים וּלְזֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים 7:37
Levi. 7:37 This is the law for the burnt offering, for the meal offering, and for the sin offering, and for the guilt offering, and for the consecration, and for the sacrifice of the peace offerings
אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינָי בְּיֹום צַוֹּתֹו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַקְרִיב אֶת־קָרְבְּנֵיהֶם לַיהוָה 7:38
Levi. 7:38 that the Lord commanded Moses on Mount Sinai on the day of his commanding the children of Israel to present their offerings to the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai.
Verses 7:37 and 7:38 seem to make it clear that these chapters of Leviticus were given to Moses by the Lord on Mount Sinai. Thus we may conclude that all the chapters of Leviticus to this point, at least, were an exposition of the Lord’s instructions to Moses on Mount Sinai, and the event described in Exod. 40:33 actually continues in the next chapter with Levi. 8:4.
Additionally, in vss. 7:37 and 7:38 it’s clear that the Lord is not saying these words. They are a summary of the Commandments of this and preceding chapters. In some of the later occurrences of this type of statement (e.g., Levi. 11:46,11:47, and 13:59) it will not be as clear whether it is the scribe or the Lord speaking or writing. Because of these two verses, in those cases, I have also assumed it was the scribe.
Torah Commandments in this Chapter
139. The law of the guilt offering shall be followed. V. 7:1 - 7:7
140. The law of the peace offering shall be followed. V. 7:12 - 7:21
141. The soul of one who eats blood shall be cut off from its people. V. 7:27
142. The breast of waving and the thigh of heaving shall be taken from
the peace offerings and are for the priests. V. 7:29 - 7:33
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