Leviticus 11


וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶם   11:1

Levi. 11:1  And the Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron saying to them,

דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ   11:2

Levi. 11:2  “Speak to the children of Israel saying, ‘This is the living thing that you may eat from all the beasts that are on the earth.’”

כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ   11:3

Levi. 11:3  “Any of parted hoof, but wholly cloven hooves, chewing cud, among the beasts, you may eat it.”

אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא   11:4

וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם

Levi. 11:4  “Except this you shall not eat:  Those either chewing the cud or those of parted hoof, the camel; though it is chewing the cud, yet the hoof is not parted.  It is unclean to you.”

וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה לֹא יַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם   11:5

Levi. 11:5  “And the rock-badger; for it might be chewing the cud, yet the hoof would not be parted.  It is unclean to you.”

וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם   11:6

Levi. 11:6  “And the hare; for it is chewing the cud, but the hoof is not parted.  It is unclean to you.”

וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם   11:7

Levi. 11:7  “And the swine; for it may be of parted hoof, with a wholly cloven hoof, but it cannot chew cud.  It is unclean to you.”

מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם   11:8

Levi. 11:8  “You shall not eat from their flesh, and you shall not come in contact with their carcass.  They are unclean to you.”

אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לֹו סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים אֹתָם    11:9


Levi. 11:9  “This you may eat from all that are in the waters:  Any that has fin and scale in the waters, in the seas and in the rivers.  You may eat them.”

וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לֹו סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם וּמִכֹּל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר   11:10

בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הֵם לָכֶם

Levi. 11:10   “But anything that does not have fin and scale in the seas and in the rivers, every swarming thing of the waters, and every living creature that is in the waters, detestable they are to you,

וְשֶׁקֶץ יִהְיוּ לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּצוּ   11:11

Levi. 11:11   and detestable they shall be to you; you shall not eat from their flesh, and you shall detest their carcass.”

כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לֹו סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם   11:12

Levi. 11:12   “Anything that does not have fin and scale in the waters, it is detestable to you.”

וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעֹוף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה   11:13

Levi. 11:13   “And these from the fowl you shall detest; they shall not be eaten, they are detestable:  The griffon vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the osprey,

וְאֶת־הַדָּאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ   11:14

Levi. 11:14   and the kite, and the falcon belonging to its kind,

אֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינֹו   11:15

Levi. 11:15   every raven belonging to its kind,

וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ   11:16

Levi. 11:16   and the ostrich, and the night hawk, and the sea gull, and the hawk belonging to its kind,

וְאֶת־הַכֹּוס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף   11:17

Levi. 11:17   and the small owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,

וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם   11:18

Levi. 11:18   and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion vulture,

וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף   11:19

Levi. 11:19   and the stork, the heron belonging to its kind, and the hoopoe, and the bat.”

All of the fowl mentioned in vss. 11:13 to 11:19 are birds of prey or carrion.  Notice that only the fowl are called out specifically and only by name.  Although other animals (vss. 11:4 to 11:7 and below) are called out by name, it is only for illustrative reasons, as examples, or as references.  For fowl, only those specifically mentioned are not to be eaten.

כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעֹוף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם   11:20

Levi. 11:20   “Every winged insect walking on four, it is detestable to you.”

This verse seems to be in conflict with the next two, unless it is considered one of those introductory verses, which I am so fond of pointing out.  However, it may mean literally precisely what it says.  That is, any winged insect that walks, and doesn’t leap, hop, or fly is detestable.

By the way, there’s a lot of talk about this verse among Christians (even some scholars) who have misread this verse.  They are quick to point out that all insects have six legs, so this verse is in error.  This verse is not in error.  It addresses insects that walk (crawl) on four of their six legs.

אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעֹוף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־(לֹא) [לֹו] כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו   11:21

לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ

Levi. 11:21   “However, this you may eat from any winged insect walking on four:  What has jointed legs from the top of its feet with which to leap on the earth.”

An apparent error in this verse is displayed in the parentheses, and the alleged corrected form is in the brackets.  The word al{, meaning no, makes no sense in this context.  The aleph, the second letter of the word, is replaced by a vav in order to make sense of the verse.  The translation using the original word would be “… that no jointed legs….”  An apparent momentary lapse on the part of the scribe!  No other explanation seems plausible.

אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינֹו וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־  11:22

לְמִינֵהוּ הֶחָגָב

Levi. 11:22   “You may eat these from them:  The locust belonging to its kind, and the bald locust belonging to its kind, and the cricket belonging to its kind, and the grasshopper belonging to its kind.”

וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעֹוף אֲשֶׁר־לֹו אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם   11:23

Levi. 11:23   “But every winged insect that has four feet, it is detestable to you.”

This verse says something different than v. 11:20 does.   As such, it could be thought to be in error.  There can be some doubt that the scribe and his peers didn’t know that insects have six legs, not four.  But I don’t subscribe to this train of thought.  In my estimation, the Jews of the time were intelligent and educated farmers and observers, and would most likely be thoroughly familiar with the insects in their region.  I’m quite certain that none of them had ever encountered an insect with four feet (they don’t exist).  My best guess about this verse is that it is yet another momentary lapse on the part of the scribe (like that in v. 11:21).  It’s very possible that he was reiterating v. 11:20, and according to his apparently sometime practice, he changed something so as not to be repetitive.  Another possibility is that the scribe intended to write “But every [other] winged insect, it is detestable to you” or “But every [other] inset that walks on four feet, it is detestable to you.”  Oh, well!  You can’t blame me for trying.

וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב   11:24

Levi. 11:24   “And for these you shall become unclean; any coming in contact with their carcass shall be unclean until the evening.”

As I interpret this verse, we are being told that anyone who catches any other flying insect in his hand and kills it, or swats a mosquito with his palm, or who is stung by a mosquito, bee, or wasp, or anyone on whose skin an insect lands and dies there, will be unclean until the evening.

Regarding the phrase unclean until the evening, one might at once believe that this reinforces the idea that the Jewish day ends and starts in the evening.  The phrase appears seven more times in this chapter and later as well, emphasizing its importance.  Why else would someone or something unclean become clean at sunset?  It would seem to be connected somehow with the end of the day, bringing closure to the circumstance of uncleanness.  However, before coming to a too hasty conclusion about the meaning of the phrase, we have to ask ourselves if there might be another more reasonable explanation.  After all, what does it mean to be unclean?  Can someone unclean mingle with others?  Can he carry on commerce or a trade while unclean?  Can he be touched by anything or anyone that would not then become unclean in turn?  Could he lie in a bed without making it unclean?  Thus we must assume that the unclean one must isolate himself while he is unclean.  But would the Lord make him stay isolated all night until the start of the next day at first light?  No, He would call him clean at the end of the daylight hours so he could return home and enjoy the comfort of his own house and family.  He might even bring sacrifices, a burnt offering, a sin offering, and a guilt offering, to the Lord in the evening.  In essence, ending the uncleanness at sunset would be a reasonable, compassionate, practical, and protective measure.  And the Lord exhibits all of these traits and more, which would justify this explanation.

וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב   11:25

Levi. 11:25   “And anyone carrying something from their carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening.”

לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְגֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם   11:26

לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא

Levi. 11:26   “Every beast that has a parted hoof but the hoof is not cloven, or the cud is not chewed, they are unclean to you; any one coming in contact with them shall be unclean.”

According to this verse as I have translated and tentatively interpreted it, a Jewish pig farmer would have to hire gentiles to do the contact work.  However, the command may be applicable only to carcasses.  This seems reasonable to an extent, since the verses surrounding this one refer specifically to carcasses.  Yet I must adhere to the wording of this verse and it doesn’t say anything about carcasses.           [Return to Deut. 14:8]

וְכֹל הֹולֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא   11:27


Levi. 11:27   “And whatever walks on its paws among all the creatures that walk on four, they are unclean to you; any one coming in contact with their carcass shall be unclean until the evening.”

This verse must refer to four-legged animals that don’t have hooves.

וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם   11:28

Levi. 11:28   “And who would be carrying their carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean till the evening; they are unclean to you.”

וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ   11:29

Levi. 11:29   “And this is the unclean thing to you with the creeping creature swarming upon the land:  The weasel or the mouse or the tortoise belonging to its kind,

וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת   11:30

Levi. 11:30   and the ferret and the land crocodile and the lizard and the chameleon.”

אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב   11:31

Levi. 11:31   “These are unclean to you among all the swarming creatures; any one coming in contact with them in their death shall be unclean till the evening.”

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וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל־עָלָיו מֵהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ אֹו בֶגֶד אֹו־עֹור אֹו שָׂק כָּל־כְּלִיאֲשֶׁר־   11:32

יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בָּהֶם בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר

Levi. 11:32   “And anything from them in their death that may fail on it of any article of wood or cloth or leather or sackcloth, any article with which work can be done, shall go into water and shall be unclean until the evening, then it shall be clean.”

This verse provides us with an uncommon discovery.  Now hear this!  If a carcass of an unclean insect or animal falls on certain types of articles or vessels with which any kind of work can be done (cleaning, wiping, carrying, delivering, etc.), they become unclean.  Now that’s not the discovery.  The discovery is that the article or vessel becomes clean again that evening after being soaked in water.  Soaked in water?!  Amazing!  Astonishing!  Depressing!  Why depressing?  Because a number  of the traditional kosher laws would appear to be in violation of this verse.

וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל־תֹּוכֹו כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתֹוכֹו יִטְמָא וְאֹתֹו תִשְׁבֹּרוּ   11:33

Levi. 11:33   “But any earthen vessel into which one of them might fall, anything that is in it shall be unclean, and you shall shatter it.”

This verse refers to vessels in which cooking might be done and unclean creatures that fall into it.  Here it is necessary to destroy the vessel.  But what of crockery, china, or metal ware?  Why would the same process spelled out for the articles in v. 11:32 not suffice for these?  Well, maybe, maybe not.  See v. 11:35 below.

מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבֹוא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא   11:34

Levi. 11:34   “Any food that may be eaten on which water in such a vessel might come shall be unclean, and all drink that could be drunk shall be unclean.”

So if there is water in the earthen vessel that becomes unclean, anything the water touches becomes unclean.  But we are not told if it must be destroyed.  Apparently, the unclean object is unclean forever.

וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו יִטְמָא תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם יֻתָּץ טְמֵאִים הֵם וּטְמֵאִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם   11:35

Levi. 11:35   “And everything on which some of their carcass might fall shall be unclean; a furnace or a range for pots, shall be destroyed; they are unclean, and they shall be unclean to you.”

This verse is a bit confusing.  It says “everything.”  But that might be a kind of exaggeration that bible scribes  occasionally indulge in.  It may refer only to metal stands on which cooking, baking, or roasting is done.  In addition, this seems to be a really drastic measure compared to many of the others.  After all, the carcass landed on a very hot surface, and that should count for fairly thorough cleaning of the area.  Besides, we aren’t told that the carcass has touched anything cooking on the surface or inside any of the vessels that might be on it.

אַךְ מַעְיָן וּבֹור מִקְוֵה־מַיִם יִהְיֶה טָהֹור וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא   11:36

Levi. 11:36   “However, a fountain or a cistern with plenty of water shall be clean, but one coming in contact with their carcass shall be unclean.”

Another confusing verse.  The water is clean, and it can be drunk from or maybe even bathed in, but if the carcass comes in contact with one’s skin, that person is unclean.  Until when?  Evening?  What if the carcass was that of a bull or a wild animal?  That doesn’t seem to make any difference.

וְכִי יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עַל־כָּל־זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזָּרֵעַ טָהֹור הוּא   11:37

Levi. 11:37   “And if some of their carcass would fall on any sowing seed that would be sown, it shall be clean.”

וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם   11:38

Levi. 11:38   “But if water is put on the seed and some of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.”

If the seed is unclean, then whatever grows from it is unclean.  Thus it should be discarded or somehow set aside as something that can be sold to a foreigner.  One seed?  How strange!

וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב   11:39

Levi. 11:39   “And if any beast that is for your food should die, anyone coming in contact with its carcass shall be unclean till the evening.”

I feel fairly confident that this verse must refer only to animals that have died by violence, sickness, old age, or exposure.

וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־   11:40


Levi. 11:40   “And anyone eating from its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean till the evening; and anyone carrying its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean till the evening.”

                                                                                                                                [Return to Levi. 17:15]

Another interesting verse.  All that is necessary to become clean after eating or carrying an unclean animal (that would be otherwise kosher) is to wash one’s clothes and wait until evening.

וְכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לֹא יֵאָכֵל   11:41

Levi. 11:41   “And every creeping creature swarming on the earth is detestable; it shall not be eaten.”

I suspect that this is either a summation of vss. 11:29 to 11:31, adding that these creatures are detestable, and stating formally that they shall not be eaten, or it is an introduction to vss. 11:42 and 11:43.  The next verse, 11:42, seems to be a sweeping summation of most of the creatures mentioned in the former verses, so I favor the first alternative.

כֹּל הֹולֵךְ עַל־גָּחֹון וְכֹל הֹולֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע עַד כָּל־מַרְבֵּה רַגְלַיִם לְכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא   11:42

תֹאכְלוּם כִּי־שֶׁקֶץ הֵם

Levi. 11:42   “Everything moving on the belly, and everything walking on four, or what is of many feet, of all creeping creatures swarming on the earth, you shall not eat them, for they are a detestable thing.”

אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם וְנִטְמֵתֶם בָּם   11:43

Levi. 11:43   “You shall not make yourselves detestable by any swarming creeping creature, and you shall not become unclean by them or be defiled by them.”

כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדֹושׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם   11:44

בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ

Levi. 11:44   “For I am the Lord your God; therefore you shall sanctify yourselves and be holy, for I am holy; so you shall not defile yourselves by any creeping creature crawling upon the earth.”

In my discussion relating to Gene. 1:26, I stated what I thought it meant to be made in God’s image, that is, to have dominion over the earth.  Here something else is added, seemingly for the children of Israel alone, but I’m inclined to believe that the Lord means it ultimately for all of humanity.  I imagine that eventually all people will bow to the Lord and obey His Commandments written here in the Torah.  We are all to be holy, because God is holy.  But for now it is intended only for Jews.

כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדֹושׁ אָנִי   11:45

Levi. 11:45   “For I am the Lord Who brought you up from the land of Egypt to be God to you; therefore you shall be holy, for I am holy.”

זֹאת תֹּורַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעֹוף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ   11:46

Levi. 11:46   This is the law of the beast and the fowl and every living creature moving in the waters and every creature swarming upon the earth,

לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל   11:47

Levi. 11:47   to differentiate between the unclean and the clean and between the animal that may be eaten and the animal that must not be eaten.                               [Return to Levi. 7:37]

Torah Commandments in this Chapter

144. Only animals with wholly cloven hooves and chewing the cud may be eaten.   V. 11:3

145. Animals with only cloven hooves or only chewing the cud shall not be eaten.    Vss. 11:4-11:7

146. The carcasses of animals with only cloven hooves or only chewing the cud

        shall not be touched.    V. 11:8

147. Of fish you may eat only those having fins and scales.   V. 11:9

148. You shall not eat of anything in the waters that does not have fins and

        scales.    Vss. 11:10 - 11:12

149. You shall detest any carcass not having fins and scales.   V. 11:11

150. You shall neither touch nor eat any of the fowl named.    Vss. 11:13-11:19

151. You shall neither touch nor eat winged insects that walk on four legs.   V. 11:20

152. Except you may eat winged insects that walk on  four legs that have jointed

        legs on top of their feet, including locusts, bald locusts, crickets of every kind,

        and grasshoppers.    Vss. 11:21, 11:22

153. You shall become unclean until evening if you touch the carcass of any

        other insects.    V. 11:24

154. Anyone carrying any part of their carcass shall wash his clothes and be

        unclean till evening.    V. 11:25

155. Anyone coming in contact with the carcass of a beast without a cloven

        hoof or does not chew the cud shall be unclean.    V. 11:26

156. Any one coming in contact with the carcass of a four-legged beast that walks

        on paws shall be unclean until evening..    V. 11:27

157. Whoever will carry such a carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean

        till evening.    V. 11:28

158. The weasel, the mouse, the tortoise of any kind, the ferret, the land crocodile,

        the the lizard, and the chameleon among the creatures creeping on the land

        shall be unclean to you.    V. 11:29, 11:30

159. Anyone coming in contact with them in death shall be unclean until the

        evening.    V. 11:31

160. Any vessel of wood, cloth, skin, or sackcloth with which work would be done

        that comes in contact with one of them in death shall be put in water and be

        unclean until evening.    V. 11:32

161. An earthen vessel with which one of them in death might come in contact

        shall be shattered and any food or drink in it shall be unclean.   V. 11:33-11:34

162. Everything, even a furnace or a range for pots, on which one of them lands

        or falls in death shall be unclean and shall be destroyed.    V. 11:35

163. However, a cistern or fountain with plenty of water shall be clean.    V. 11:36

164. Anyone in the cistern or fountain coming in contact with the dead thing

        shall be unclean.    V. 11:36

165.  If some of their carcass would fall in any sowing seed that would be

        sown, the seed shall be clean.    V. 11:37

166. But if the seed is dampened, it is unclean.    V. 11:38

167. One coming in contact with a kosher animal that has died of causes other

         than sacrifice shall be unclean till the evening.    V. 11:39

167. One carrying it or eating of it shall wash their clothes and be unclean until

         evening.    V. 11:40

168. All creeping creatures swarming on the earth, moving on their belly or

        creeping on four or more feet, shall not be eaten.    V. 11:41-11:42

170. You shall not become detestable, unclean, or defiled by them.    V. 11:43


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