This and the remaining chapters seem to form a separate part of the book of Daniel. They have little connection
with the previous chapters. Much of the remaining narrative is written in the first person. Once more my previous
remarks about the Aramaic errors apply here as well.
בִּשְׁנַת חֲדָה לְבֵלְאשַׁצַּר מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל דָּנִיֵּאל חֵלֶם חֲזָה וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשֵׁהּ עַל־מִשְׁכְּבֵהּ בֵּאדַיִן חֶלְמָא כְתַב 7:1
רֵאשׁ מִלִּין אֲמַר׃
Dani. 7:1 In the first year for Belshazzar, king of Babylon, Daniel beheld a dream and visions of
his head upon his bed, he wrote whereupon the dream, relating the sum of the matters.
עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם־לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָּא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא׃ 7:2
Dani. 7:2 Daniel reacted, and he related, I was looking in my vision during the night and behold,
the four winds of heaven were breaking forth to the great sea.
וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן־יַמָּא שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן־דָּא׃ 7:3
Dani. 7:3 And four huge beasts were coming up from the sea, each different from the other,
קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי־נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי־מְּרִיטוּ גַפַּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן־אַרְעָא וְעַל־רַגְלַיִן 7:4
כֶּאֱנָש הֳקִימַת וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ׃
Dani. 7:4 the first like a lion and its wings those of an eagle. I kept watching while its wings were
plucked and it was lifted from the earth and was made to stand on feet like a human, and a human
heart was given to it.
וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרִי תִנְיָנָה דָּמְיָה לְדֹב וְלִשְׂטַר־חַד הֳקִמַת וּתְלָת עִלְעִין בְּפֻמַּהּ בֵּין (שִׁנַּיַּהּ) [שִׁנַּהּ] וְכֵן 7:5
אָמְרִין לַהּ קוּמִי אֲכֻלִי בְּשַׂר שַׂגִּיא׃
Dani. 7:5 And behold another beast! The second was similar to a bear, and it was lifted to one
side with three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. And it was being spoken to as follows: “Rise!
Devour much flesh!”
בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר וְלַהּ גַּפִּין אַרְבַּע דִּי־עֹוף עַל־ (גַּבַּיַּהּ) [גַּבַּהּ] וְאַרְבְּעָה 7:6
רֵאשִׁין לְחֵיוְתָא וְשָׁלְטָן יְהִיב לַהּ׃
Dani. 7:6 I was watching after this and behold, another like a leopard that had four wings of a fowl
on its sides, and there were four heads for the beast, and dominion was given to it.
בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה (רְבִיעָיָה) [רְבִיעָאָה] דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא 7:7
Dani. 7:7 After this I was watching in the visions of the night and behold, a beast, the fourth,
fearsome and terrible and extremely strong, and its huge teeth were of iron. It was consuming
and shattering and trampling the residue with its feet. And it was different from each beast before
it, and it had ten horns.
מִשְׂתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת (בֵּינֵיהֹון) [בֵּינֵיהֵן] וּתְלָת מִן־קַרְנַיָּא 7:8
קַדְמָיָתָא (אֶתְעֲקַרוּ) [אֶתְעֲקַרָה] מִן־ (קֳדָמַיַּהּ) [קֳדָמַהּ] וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא־דָא וּפֻם
Dani. 7:8 I was thinking about the horns when behold, another smaller horn came up among them
and three of the first horns were uprooted from before it and behold, eyes like the eyes of a human
were on this horn, and a mouth speaking great things.
חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יֹומִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ 7:9
שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלֹּוהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃
Dani. 7:9 I kept watching until a time
when thrones had been placed
and the Ancient of days sat.
His garment was like white snow
and the hair of His head like pure wool.
His throne was of flames of fire,
its wheels, a burning fire.
The Ancient of days is assumed by scholars to be another name for God.
נְהַר דִּי־נוּר נָגֵד וְנָפֵק מִן־קֳדָמֹוהִי אֶלֶף (אַלְפַיִם) [אַלְפִין] יְשַׁמְּשׁוּנֵּהּ וְרִבֹּו (רַבְּוָן) [רִבְבָן] קָדָמֹוהִי 7:10
יְקוּמוּן דִּינָא יְתִב וְסִפְרִין פְּתִיחוּ׃
Dani. 7:10 A river of fire streamed
and erupted from before Him.
A thousand thousands could minister to Him,
and myriads of ten thousands before Him could stand.
The One of judgment sat
as the books were opened.
In many bibles the phrase I translate as a thousand thousands is translated as a thousand times a thousand. I
believe this is incorrect, as the ancient Jews didn’t know multiplication. To them a thousand thousands must have
meant a thousand things counted a thousand times.
חָזֵה הֲוֵית בֵּאדַיִן מִן־קָל מִלַּיָּא רַבְרְבָתָא דִּי קַרְנָא מְמַלֱּלָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי קְטִילַת חֵיוְתָא וְהוּבַד 7:11
גִּשְׁמַהּ וִיהִיבַת לִיקֵדַת אֶשָּׁא׃
Dani. 7:11 Thereupon I was beholding because of the great sound of the words that the horn was
speaking. I was watching until the time that the beast was slain and its body was destroyed as it
was given to the burning of the fire.
וּשְׁאָר חֵיוָתָא הֶעְדִּיו שָׁלְטָנְהֹון וְאַרְכָה בְחַיִּין יְהִיבַת לְהֹון עַד־זְמַן וְעִדָּן׃ 7:12
Dani. 7:12 And the rest of the beasts, their dominion was taken away, but a prolonging of living
was given to them for a season and a time.
חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יֹומַיָּא מְטָה 7:13
Dani. 7:13 I kept watching in the visions of the night
and behold, with the clouds of heaven
there came to be one like a son of man,
and he came up to the Ancient of days
and they brought him before Him.
Jewish scholars, and some Christian scholars, agree that this “son of man” is likely the Jewish Messiah. Most
Christian scholars believe this is a reference to Jesus. In reality, there’s no way to tell except if one is seriously
וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא 7:14
יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃
Dani. 7:14 And to him He gave dominion
and glory and reign,
so all the peoples, the nations, and the languages
would serve him.
His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away,
and his kingdom, that which shall not be destroyed.
אֶתְכְּרִיַּת רוּחִי אֲנָה דָנִיֵּאל בְּגֹוא נִדְנֶה וְחֶזְוֵי רֵאשִׁי יְבַהֲלֻנַּנִי׃ 7:15
Dani. 7:15 My spirit was distressed. I, Daniel, was in the midst of the dream, that the visions of
my head could frighten me.
קִרְבֵת עַל־חַד מִן־קָאֲמַיָּא וְיַצִּיבָא אֶבְעֵא־מִנֵּהּ עַל־כָּל־דְּנָה וַאֲמַר־לִי וּפְשַׁר מִלַּיָּא יְהֹודְעִנַּנִי׃ 7:16
Dani. 7:16 I drew near to one from those standing that I might seek the truth from him about all
this, and he told me that he could inform me of the interpretation of the things.
[Return to Dani. 9:21]
אִלֵּין חֵיוָתָא רַבְרְבָתָא דִּי אִנִּין אַרְבַּע אַרְבְּעָה מַלְכִין יְקוּמוּן מִן־אַרְעָא׃ 7:17
Dani. 7:17 These great beasts, of which there are four: Four kings shall arise out of the earth.
וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיֹונִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃ 7:18
Dani. 7:18 Then the kingdom shall receive saints of the Most High and they shall possess the
kingdom for everlasting and for an everlasting of everlastings.
Jewish scholars presume that the ancient Jews believed the saints were the survivors of the exile.
אֱדַיִן צְבִית לְיַצָּבָא עַל־חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא דִּי־הֲוָת שָׁנְיָה מִן־ (כָּלְּהֹון) [כָּלְּהֵין] דְּחִילָה 7:19
יַתִּירָה (שִׁנַּיַּהּ) [שִׁנַּהּ] דִּי־פַרְזֶל וְטִפְרַיהּ דִּי־נְחָשׁ אָכְלָה מַדֲּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא בְּרַגְלַיהּ רָפְסָה׃
Dani. 7:19 Thereupon I desired to know the truth about the fourth beast, which was different from
any of them, extremely fearsome, its teeth of iron and its claws of brass, devouring, shattering,
and with its feet trampling the rest,
וְעַל־קַרְנַיָּא עֲשַׂר דִּי בְרֵאשַׁהּ וְאָחֳרִי דִּי סִלְקַת (וּנְפַלוּ) [וּנְפַלָה] מִן־ (קֳדָמַיַּהּ) [קֳדָמַהּ] תְּלָת 7:20
וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן וְעַיְנִין לַהּ וְפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן וְחֶזְוַהּ רַב מִן־חַבְרָתַהּ׃
Dani. 7:20 and about the ten horns that were on its head, and the other that came up, that three
fell from before it. And that horn! It even had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things, and its
appearance was greater than its companions.
חָזֵה הֲוֵית וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן עָבְדָה קְרָב עִם־קַדִּישִׁין וְיָכְלָה לְהֹון׃ 7:21
Dani. 7:21 I kept watching, and this horn made war with the saints, and it prevailed against them
עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יֹומַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיֹונִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃ 7:22
Dani. 7:22 until the Ancient of days came and gave judgment to the saints of the Most High, and
a set time arrived and the saints took possession of the kingdom.
כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ (רְבִיעָיָא) [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא 7:23
וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃
Dani. 7:23 He said as follows: “The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom on the earth that will
be different from all the kingdoms, and it shall devour all the earth and tread it down and shatter it.”
וְקַרְנַיָּא עֲשַׂר מִנַּהּ מַלְכוּתָה עַשְׂרָה מַלְכִין יְקֻמוּן וְאָחֳרָן יְקוּם אַחֲרֵיהֹון וְהוּא יִשְׁנֵא מִן־קַדְמָיֵא 7:24
וּתְלָתָה מַלְכִין יְהַשְׁפִּל׃
Dani. 7:24 And the ten horns? From this kingdom ten kings shall arise. Then another shall arise
and he shall be different from the former, and he shall bring low three kings.
וּמִלִּין לְצַד (עִלָּיָא) [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיֹונִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ 7:25
עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃
Dani. 7:25 And he shall speak words against the Most High and constantly harass the saints of
the Most High, and he will intend to change the seasons and the law, and they will be given into
his hand until a time, and times and half a time.
The last few words of this verse, until a time, and times and half a time, are completely incomprehensible to me.
Christian commentaries on them in the literature assume they represent a period of 1,260 years and relate to the
popes. I leave it to you to understand how they arrive at this conclusion. [Return to Dani. 12:7]
וְדִינָא יִתִּב וְשָׁלְטָנֵהּ יְהַעְדֹּון לְהַשְׁמָדָה וּלְהֹובָדָה עַד־סֹופָא׃ 7:26
Dani. 7:26 But the judgment will sit, and they shall take away his dominion to be destroyed and to
perish until the end.
וּמַלְכוּתָה וְשָׁלְטָנָא וּרְבוּתָא דִּי מַלְכְוָת תְּחֹות כָּל־שְׁמַיָּא יְהִיבַת לְעַם קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיֹונִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ 7:27
מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְכֹל שָׁלְטָנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן וְיִשְׁתַּמְּעוּן׃
Dani. 7:27 And the kingdom, with the dominion and the greatness of the kingdoms under all of
heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High. Its kingdom shall be a kingdom forever, and it shall serve and obey all the dominions.
עַד־כָּה סֹופָא דִי־מִלְּתָא אֲנָה דָנִיֵּאל שַׂגִּיא רַעְיֹונַי יְבַהֲלֻנַּנִי וְזִיוַי יִשְׁתַּנֹּון עֲלַי וּמִלְּתָא בְּלִבִּי נִטְרֵת׃ 7:28
Dani. 7:28 To here is the end of the matter. I am Daniel; many are my thoughts, they alarm me so
that my brightness must be changed over me, yet I keep the matter in my heart.
Let others pretend they understand this chapter. I for one, have almost no idea what the message is here.
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