וַיְהִי לִתְשׁוּבַת הַשָּׁנָה לְעֵת צֵאת הַמַּלְאכִים וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶת־יוֹאָב וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו עִמּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל 11:1 וַיַּשְׁחִתוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַיָּצֻרוּ עַל־רַבָּה וְדָוִד יוֹשֵׁב בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃
2Sam. 11:1 And it was at the return of the year, at the time of going out of kings, and David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel, and they destroyed the children of Ammon and lay siege on Rabbah, while David remained in Jerusalem.
The return of the year probably refers to the month of Nissan, the spring, which I suppose is the good time of the year for battles, the time of going out of kings. Some scholars question this interpretation, presuming that it refers to that time in the previous year when Hanum (of Ammon) shamed David’s messengers (see Chapter 10).
וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג 11:2 וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃
2Sam. 11:2 And it was at the time of evening, and David arose from being on his couch and was walking on the roof of the palace when he saw a woman bathing from on top the roof, and the woman was very beautiful to look upon.
וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרֹשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת בַּת־שֶׁבַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11:3
2Sam. 11:3 And David sent and inquired about the woman, and one said, “Is this not Bath-sheba, the daughter of Eliam, wife of Uriah, the Hittite?
וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ וְהִיא מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת מִטֻּמְאָתָהּ וַתָּשָׁב 11:4
2Sam. 11:4 Then David sent messengers and he took her, and she came in to him and he lay with her. Then she purified herself from her uncleanness and returned to her house.
וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתַּגֵּד לְדָוִד וַתֹּאמֶר הָרָה אָנֹכִי׃ 11:5
2Sam. 11:5 And the woman was pregnant, so she sent and told to David and she said, “I am with child.”
וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב שְׁלַח אֵלַי אֶת־אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־דָּוִד׃ 11:6
2Sam. 11:6 And David sent to Joab: “Send Uriah, the Hittite, to me. And Joab sent Uriah to David.
וַיָּבֹא אוּרִיָּה אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד לִשְׁלוֹם יוֹאָב וְלִשְׁלוֹם הָעָם וְלִשְׁלוֹם הַמִּלְחָמָה׃ 11:7
2Sam. 11:7 And Uriah came in to him and David asked about the welfare of Joab and about the welfare of the people and about the conduct of the war.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לְאוּרִיָּה רֵד לְבֵיתְךָ וּרְחַץ רַגְלֶיךָ וַיֵּצֵא אוּרִיָּה מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתֵּצֵא אַחֲרָיו מַשְׂאַת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 11:8
2Sam. 11:8 Then David said to Uriah, “Go down to your house and wash your feet. And Uriah departed from the house of the king, and a present of the king came forth after him.
וַיִּשְׁכַּב אוּרִיָּה פֶּתַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת כָּל־עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנָיו וְלֹא יָרַד אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ׃ 11:9
2Sam. 11:9 But Uriah lay at the door of the house of the king with all the servants of his lord and did not go down to his house.
וַיַּגִּדוּ לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָרַד אוּרִיָּה אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אוּרִיָּה הֲלוֹא מִדֶּרֶךְ אַתָּה בָא מַדּוּעַ 11:10 לֹא־יָרַדְתָּ אֶל־בֵּיתֶךָ׃
2Sam. 11:10 When they told to David saying, “Uriah did not go down to his house,” then David said to Uriah, “Is it not from a journey you come? Why have you not gone down to your house?”
וַיֹּאמֶר אוּרִיָּה אֶל־דָּוִד הָאָרוֹן וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה יֹשְׁבִים בַּסֻּכּוֹת וַאדֹנִי יוֹאָב וְעַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי עַל־פְּנֵיַ 11:11 הַשָּׂדֶה חֹנִים וַאֲנִי אָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּיתִי לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְלִשְׁכַּב עִם־אִשְׁתִּי חַיֶּךָ וְחֵי נַפְשֶׁךָ אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃
2Sam. 11:11 And Uriah said to David, “The ark and Israel and Judah are abiding in tents, and my lord, Joab, and the servants of my lord are camping on the face of the field, and I should go in to my house to eat and to drink and to lay with my wife? As you live and as your soul lives, I will not do this thing.”
Uriah was apparently a noble, patriotic, conscientious, sincere, and self-respecting individual. He did not deserve his fate at David’s hand.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אוּרִיָּה שֵׁב בָּזֶה גַּם־הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר אֲשַׁלְּחֶךָּ וַיֵּשֶׁב אוּרִיָּה בִירוּשָׁלִַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּאַ 11:12 וּמִמָּחֳרָת׃
2Sam. 11:12 And David said to Uriah, “Remain here today and tomorrow I shall also send you away.” So Uriah remained in Jerusalem on that day and the next.
וַיִּקְרָא־לֹו דָוִד וַיֹּאכַל לְפָנָיו וַיֵּשְׁתְּ וַיְשַׁכְּרֵהוּ וַיֵּצֵא בָעֶרֶב לִשְׁכַּב בְּמִשְׁכָּבֹו עִם־עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנָיו וְאֶל־ 11:13
בֵּיתוֹ לֹא יָרָד׃
2Sam. 11:13 And David called to him, and he ate before him and he drank, and he made him drunk, and he went out in the evening to lie in his bed with the servants of his lord and did not go down to his house.
וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּכְתֹּב דָּוִד סֵפֶר אֶל־יוֹאָב וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד אוּרִיָּה׃ַ 11:14
2Sam. 11:14 And it was in the morning when David wrote a letter to Joab and sent in the hand of Uriah.
וַיִּכְתֹּב בַּסֵּפֶר לֵאמֹר הָבוּ אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַחֲזָקָה וְשַׁבְתֶּם מֵאַחֲרָיו וְנִכָּה וָמֵת׃ 11:15
2Sam. 11:15 And he wrote in the letter saying, “Take Uriah to the frontmost face of the hottest battle and draw back from behind him so he will be smitten and die.”
וַיְהִי בִּשְׁמוֹר יוֹאָב אֶל־הָעִיר וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָדַע כִּי אַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל שָׁם׃ 11:16
2Sam. 11:16 And it came to pass as Joab kept watch by the city that he assigned Uriah to the place that he knew that valiant men were there.
וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר וַיִּלָּחֲמוּ אֶת־יוֹאָב וַיִּפֹּל מִן־הָעָם מֵעַבְדֵי דָוִד וַיָּמָת גַּם אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11:17
2Sam. 11:17 Then the men of the city came out and fought Joab, and some from the people of the servants of David fell, and Uriah, the Hittite, also died.
וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב וַיַּגֵּד לְדָוִד אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה׃ 11:18
2Sam. 11:18 Then Joab sent and told to David all the news of the battle.
וַיְצַו אֶת־הַמַּלְאָךְ לֵאמֹר כְּכַלּוֹתְךָ אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה לְדַבֵּר אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 11:19
2Sam. 11:19 And he commanded the messenger saying, “After your completing all the news of the battle spoken to the king,
וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־ 11:20 יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃
2Sam. 11:20 then it shall be, if the anger of the king rises and he says to you, ‘Why did you go so close to the city to fight? Did you not know that they would shoot from atop the wall?’
מִי־הִכָּה אֶת־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־יְרֻבֶּשֶׁת הֲלוֹא־אִשָּׁה הִשְׁלִיכָה עָלָיו פֶּלַח רֶכֶב מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמָת בְּתֵבֵץַ 11:21 לָמָּה נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הַחוֹמָה וְאָמַרְתָּ גַּם עַבְדְּךָ אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי מֵת׃
2Sam. 11:21 ‘Who smote Abimelech son of Jerubbesheth? Was it not a woman who cast down a piece of upper millstone upon him from atop the wall, that he died at Thebez? Why did you go so close to the wall?’ Then you shall say, ‘Your servant, Uriah, the Hittite, also died.’”
וַיֵּלֶךְ הַמַּלְאָךְ וַיָּבֹא וַיַּגֵּד לְדָוִד אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחוֹ יוֹאָב׃ 11:22
2Sam. 11:22 So the messenger went and he came and reported to David all for which Joab had sent him.
וַיֹּאמֶר הַמַּלְאָךְ אֶל־דָּוִד כִּי־גָבְרוּ עָלֵינוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּצְאוּ אֵלֵינוּ הַשָּׂדֶה וַנִּהְיֶה עֲלֵיהֶם עַד־פֶּתַחַ 11:23 הַשָּׁעַר׃
2Sam. 11:23 And the messenger said to David, “When the men prevailed upon us and came out to us to the field, then we were upon them all the way up to the entrance of the gate.”
וַיֹּרְאוּ) [וַיֹּרוּ] (הַמּוֹרְאִים) [הַמּוֹרִים] אֶל־עֲבָדֶךָ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה וַיָּמוּתוּ מֵעַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְגַם עַבְדְּךָ 11:24
אוּרִיָּהַ הַחִתִּי מֵת׃
2Sam. 11:24 “And the archers shot at your servants from atop the wall and slew some from the servants of the king, and your servant, Uriah, the Hittite, also died.”
The two words in error in this verse both have extra alephs which give them different meanings unrelated to the context. Their corrections are in the respective brackets.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־הַמַּלְאָךְ כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־יוֹאָב אַל־יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה כִּי־כָזֹה וְכָזֶה תֹּאכַלַ 11:25 הֶחָרֶב הַחֲזֵק מִלְחַמְתְּךָ אֶל־הָעִיר וְהָרְסָהּ וְחַזְּקֵהוּ׃
2Sam. 11:25 Then David said to the messenger, “Thus shall you say to Joab, ‘Let not this thing be wicked in your eyes, for the sword devours like this or like that. Make your fight stronger against the city and overthrow it.’ And you encourage him.”
וַתִּשְׁמַע אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה כִּי־מֵת אוּרִיָּה אִישָׁהּ וַתִּסְפֹּד עַל־בַּעְלָהּ׃ 11:26
2Sam. 11:26 When the wife of Uriah heard that Uriah, her husband, had died, then she lamented over her husband.
וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה 11:27 דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃
2Sam. 11:27 When the mourning had passed, then David sent and got her to his house and she became for a wife to him, and she bore a son for him. But the deed that David had done was wicked in the eyes of the Lord.
David, a warrior himself, should have recognized Uriah’s goodness, and respected him. His act of betrayal should have been wicked in his eyes as well. But his desire apparently overcame his compassion. See the next chapter for the continuation of this story.
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