וַיָּמָת שְׁמוּאֵל וַיִּקָּבְצוּ כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־לוֹ וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בְּבֵיתוֹ בָּרָמָה וַיָּקָם דָּוִד וַיֵּרֶד אֶל־מִדְבַּר 25:1 פָּארָן׃
1Sam. 25:1 And Samuel died and all of Israel assembled and mourned for him, and they buried him by his house in Ramah. And David arose and went down to the wilderness of Paran.
וְאִישׁ בְּמָעוֹן וּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַכַּרְמֶל וְהָאִישׁ גָּדוֹל מְאֹד וְלוֹ צֹאן שְׁלֹשֶׁת־אֲלָפִים וְאֶלֶף עִזִּים וַיְהִי בִּגְזֹז אֶת־ 25:2 צֹאנוֹ בַּכַּרְמֶל׃
1Sam. 25:2 And a man was in Maon and his possessions were in Carmel, and the man was very great, as three thousand sheep were his, and a thousand goats; and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel.
וְשֵׁם הָאִישׁ נָבָל וְשֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ אֲבִגָיִל וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת־שֶׂכֶל וִיפַת תֹּאַר וְהָאִישׁ קָשֶׁה וְרַע מַעֲלָלִים 25:3 וְהוּא (כלבו) [כָלִבִּי]׃
1Sam. 25:3 And the name of the man was Nabal and the name of his wife was Abigail. Now the woman was of good wisdom and beautiful of form, while the man was coarse and of displeasing deeds, and he was like his heart.
The error indicated at the end of this verse in the parentheses is of questionable nature to me. My translation assumes there is no error. And the phrase and he was like his heart makes sense. In other words, his behavior was a manifestation of the condition of his heart. The assumed correction in the brackets makes the translation come out as and he was a Calebite. It seems reasonable to me to understand that his identification as a Calebite would have been more appropriately specified in v. 25:2, the same verse in which he was introduced. Besides, there might be corroboration of my viewpoint in 1Sam. 30:5. [Return to 1Sam. 30:5]
By the way, the name Nabal can mean fool.
וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי־גֹזֵז נָבָל אֶת־צֹאנוֹ׃ 25:4
1Sam. 25:4 And David heard in the wilderness that Nabal was shearing his sheep.
וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד עֲשָׂרָה נְעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַנְּעָרִים עֲלוּ כַרְמֶלָה וּבָאתֶם אֶל־נָבָל וּשְׁאֶלְתֶּם־לוֹ בִשְׁמִי 25:5 לְשָׁלוֹם׃
1Sam. 25:5 So David sent ten men, and David said to the young men, “Go up to Carmel and you shall go to Nabal and offer greetings of peace to him in my name.”
וַאֲמַרְתֶּם כֹּה לֶחָי וְאַתָּה שָׁלוֹם וּבֵיתְךָ שָׁלוֹם וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 25:6
1Sam. 25:6 “And you shall say like this: ‘Hail! And you, peace, and your house, peace, and all that is yours, peace!’
וְעַתָּה שָׁמַעְתִּי כִּי גֹזְזִים לָךְ עַתָּה הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר־לְךָ הָיוּ עִמָּנוּ לֹא הֶכְלַמְנוּם וְלֹא־נִפְקַד לָהֶם מְאוּמָה 25:7 כָּל־יְמֵי הֱיוֹתָם בַּכַּרְמֶל׃
1Sam. 25:7 ‘And now I have heard that you have shearers. Now the shepherds who are yours have been with us; we did not shame them and nothing was lacking to them all the time of their being in Carmel.’
שְׁאַל אֶת־נְעָרֶיךָ וְיַגִּידוּ לָךְ וְיִמְצְאוּ הַנְּעָרִים חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ כִּי־עַל־יוֹם טוֹב בָּנוּ תְּנָה־נָּא אֵת אֲשֶׁר 25:8 תִּמְצָא יָדְךָ לַעֲבָדֶיךָ וּלְבִנְךָ לְדָוִד׃
1Sam. 25:8 ‘Ask your young men and they will tell to you. So let the young men find favor in your eyes -- for on a good day have we come -- give, I pray you, what ever you will find of your hand for your servants and for your son, for David.’”
וַיָּבֹאוּ נַעֲרֵי דָוִד וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֶל־נָבָל כְּכָל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּשֵׁם דָּוִד וַיָּנוּחוּ׃ 25:9
1Sam. 25:9 And the young men of David went and spoke to Nabal according to all these words in the name of David; then they were quiet.
וַיַּעַן נָבָל אֶת־עַבְדֵי דָוִד וַיֹּאמֶר מִי דָוִד וּמִי בֶן־יִשָׁי הַיּוֹם רַבּוּ עֲבָדִים הַמִּתְפָּרְצִים אִישׁ מִפְּנֵי 25:10
1Sam. 25:10 And Nabal answered the servants of David and he said, “Who is David? And who is the son of Jesse? Today there are many servants who are breaking away, each from his master.”
וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־לַחְמִי וְאֶת־מֵימַי וְאֵת טִבְחָתִי אֲשֶׁר טָבַחְתִּי לְגֹזְזָי וְנָתַתִּי לַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֵי 25:11 מִזֶּה הֵמָּה׃
1Sam. 25:11 “So shall I take my bread and my water and my kill that I have slaughtered for my shearers and give to men who I do not know from where it is they are?”
וַיַּהַפְכוּ נַעֲרֵי־דָוִד לְדַרְכָּם וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּגִּדוּ לוֹ כְּכֹל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 25:12
1Sam. 25:12 Then the young men of David turned again to their journey and went back, and they came and told to him about all these words.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲנָשָׁיו חִגְרוּ אִישׁ אֶת־חַרְבֹּו וַיַּחְגְּרוּ אִישׁ אֶת־חַרְבֹּו וַיַּחְגֹּר גַּם־דָּוִד אֶת־חַרְבֹּו וַיַּעֲלוּ 25:13
אַחֲרֵי דָוִד כְּאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּמָאתַיִם יָשְׁבוּ עַל־הַכֵּלִים׃
1Sam. 25:13 And David said to his men, “Gird yourself each his sword.” So each man girded his sword, and David also girded his sword, and about four hundred men went up behind David while two hundred stayed by the baggage.
וְלַאֲבִיגַיִל אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הִגִּיד נַעַר־אֶחָד מֵהַנְּעָרִים לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה שָׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים מֵהַמִּדְבָּר לְבָרֵךְ 25:14 אֶת־אֲדֹנֵינוּ וַיָּעַט בָּהֶם׃
1Sam. 25:14 But one young man from the young men told to Abigail, wife of Nabal, saying, “Behold, David has sent messengers from the wilderness to bless our master and he flew down on them.”
וְהָאֲנָשִׁים טֹבִים לָנוּ מְאֹד וְלֹא הָכְלַמְנוּ וְלֹא־פָקַדְנוּ מְאוּמָה כָּל־יְמֵי הִתְהַלַּכְנוּ אִתָּם בִּהְיוֹתֵנוּ 25:15 בַּשָּׂדֶה׃
1Sam. 25:15 “But the men were very good to us and we were not hurt, and we did not want anything all the days of our going with them while being in the field.”
חוֹמָה הָיוּ עָלֵינוּ גַּם־לַיְלָה גַּם־יוֹמָם כָּל־יְמֵי הֱיוֹתֵנוּ עִמָּם רֹעִים הַצֹּאן׃ 25:16
1Sam. 25:16 “They were a wall by us both at night and in the day all the time of our being with them keeping the sheep.”
וְעַתָּה דְּעִי וּרְאִי מַה־תַּעֲשִׂי כִּי־כָלְתָה הָרָעָה אֶל־אֲדֹנֵינוּ וְעַל כָּל־בֵּיתוֹ וְהוּא בֶּן־בְּלִיַּעַל מִדַּבֵּר 25:17
1Sam. 25:17 “So now understand and perceive what you must do, for evil has been prepared against our master and against all his house, as speaking to him, he is a base fellow.”
וַתְּמַהֵר (אֲבִוֹגַיִל) [אֲבִיגַיִל] וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי־יַיִן וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן (עֲשָׂווֹת) [עֲשׂוּיֹת 25:18
וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים וַתָּשֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים׃
1Sam. 25:18 Then Abigail hurried and took two hundred loaves of bread and two bottles of wine and five dressed sheep and five measures of parched corn and one hundred bunches of raisins and two hundred cakes of figs and put onto asses.
The first error in this verse is a misspelling of Abigail’s name. It is spelled with a vav in place of what should be the first yad. The second error also is spelled with a vav in place of a yad. The corrections for both errors are in the first set of brackets and following the right bracket at the end of the top line.
וַתֹּאמֶר לִנְעָרֶיהָ עִבְרוּ לְפָנַי הִנְנִי אַחֲרֵיכֶם בָּאָה וּלְאִישָׁהּ נָבָל לֹא הִגִּידָה׃ 25:19
1Sam. 25:19 And she said to her young men, “Go on before me. Here I am coming after you. But she did not tell to her husband, Nabal.
וְהָיָה הִיא רֹכֶבֶת עַל־הַחֲמוֹר וְיֹרֶדֶת בְּסֵתֶר הָהָר וְהִנֵּה דָוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו יֹרְדִים לִקְרָאתָהּ וַתִּפְגֹּשׁ 25:20
1Sam. 25:20 As was she riding on the ass and coming down on the trail of the mountain, then behold, David and his men were coming down toward her, and she met them.
וְדָוִד אָמַר אַךְ לַשֶּׁקֶר שָׁמַרְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָזֶה בַּמִּדְבָּר וְלֹא־נִפְקַד מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ מְאוּמָה וַיָּשֶׁב־ 25:21 לִי רָעָה תַּחַת טוֹבָה׃
1Sam. 25:21 Now David had thought, “Surely for no reason I have watched all that is his in the wilderness that nothing was missed out of all that is his. Now he returns me evil instead of good.”
כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים לְאֹיְבֵי דָוִד וְכֹה יֹסִיף אִם־אַשְׁאִיר מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עַד־הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר׃ 25:22
1Sam. 25:22 “May God do so to the enemies of David and much more, if I will spare, of all that is his, one who is urinating on the wall, by the light of morning.”
One who is urinating on the wall refers to any male, human or animal.
וַתֵּרֶא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶת־דָּוִד וַתְּמַהֵר וַתֵּרֶד מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַתִּפֹּל לְאַפֵּי דָוִד עַל־פָּנֶיהָ וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרֶץ׃ 25:23
1Sam. 25:23 When Abigail saw David, then she hurried and came down from off the ass and fell upon her face and bowed to the ground in front of David.
וַתִּפֹּל עַל־רַגְלָיו וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי־אֲנִי אֲדֹנִי הֶעָוֺן וּתְדַבֶּר־נָא אֲמָתְךָ בְּאָזְנֶיךָ וּשְׁמַע אֵת דִּבְרֵי אֲמָתֶךָ׃ 25:24
1Sam. 25:24 Then she fell upon his feet and said, “My lord, on me -- I am of the iniquity, so let your handmaid speak, I pray you, into your ears and you hear the words of your handmaid.”
אַל־נָא יָשִׂים אֲדֹנִי אֶת־לִבּוֹ אֶל־אִישׁ הַבְּלִיַּעַל הַזֶּה עַל־נָבָל כִּי כִשְׁמוֹ כֶּן־הוּא נָבָל שְׁמוֹ וּנְבָלָה 25:25
עִמּוֹ וַאֲנִי אֲמָתְךָ לֹא רָאִיתִי אֶת־נַעֲרֵי אֲדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר שָׁלָחְתָּ׃
1Sam. 25:25 “Please let my lord not set his heart against this man of wickedness, against Nabal, for as his name, so is he. Nabal is his name and folly is with him. But I, your handmaid, did not see the young men of my lord whom you sent.”
וְעַתָּה אֲדֹנִי חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אֲשֶׁר מְנָעֲךָ יְהוָה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהוֹשֵׁעַ יָדְךָ לָךְ וְעַתָּה יִהְיוּ כְנָבָל 25:26 אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהַמְבַקְשִׁים אֶל־אֲדֹנִי רָעָה׃
1Sam. 25:26 “So now, my lord, as the Lord lives and your soul lives, if the Lord withheld you from coming into blood guiltiness and freed your hand for you, so now let your enemies and those who seek evil against my lord be like Nabal.”
וְעַתָּה הַבְּרָכָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיא שִׁפְחָתְךָ לַאדֹנִי וְנִתְּנָה לַנְּעָרִים הַמִּתְהַלְּכִים בְּרַגְלֵי אֲדֹנִי׃ 25:27
1Sam. 25:27 “Now then, this is a present that your servant has brought to my lord. So let it be given to the young men who are walking in the footsteps of my lord.”
שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע אֲמָתֶךָ כִּי עָשֹׂה־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי בַּיִת נֶאֱמָן כִּי־מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהוָה אֲדֹנִי נִלְחָם וְרָעָה 25:28 לֹא־תִמָּצֵא בְךָ מִיָּמֶיךָ׃
1Sam. 25:28 “Pardon, I pray you, for the trespass of your handmaid, for surely the Lord will make a trusted house for my lord, because my lord fights battles of the Lord, and no wickedness will be found in you any of your days.”
וַיָּקָם אָדָם לִרְדָפְךָ וּלְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ וְהָיְתָה נֶפֶשׁ אֲדֹנִי צְרוּרָה בִּצְרוֹר הַחַיִּים אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ 25:29 וְאֵת נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ יְקַלְּעֶנָּה בְּתוֹךְ כַּף הַקָּלַע׃
1Sam. 25:29 “Though a man rises up to pursue you and to seek your soul, yet the soul of my lord will be woven into the web of life with the Lord, your God. But He shall sling out the souls of your enemies with the middle of the hollow of the sling.”
וְהָיָה כִּי־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֶת־הַטּוֹבָה עָלֶיךָ וְצִוְּךָ לְנָגִיד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25:30
1Sam. 25:30 “And it shall be, when the Lord will have done for my lord according to all that He has spoken, the fair words concerning you, and appointed you to be leader over Israel,
וְלֹא תִהְיֶה זֹאת לְךָ לְפוּקָה וּלְמִכְשׁוֹל לֵב לַאדֹנִי וְלִשְׁפָּךְ־דָּם חִנָּם וּלְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֲדֹנִי לוֹ וְהֵיטִב יְהוָה 25:31 לַאדֹנִי וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־אֲמָתֶך׃ָ
1Sam. 25:31 that this would not be for a stumbling block for you or an offense of the heart for my lord by spilling blood without cause or my lord avenging himself. When the Lord shall have done good for my lord, then may you remember your handmaid.”
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲבִיגַל בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחֵךְ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לִקְרָאתִי׃ 25:32
1Sam. 25:32 And David said to Abigail, “Blessed is the Lord, God of Israel, Who sent you this day to meet me.”
וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 25:33
1Sam. 25:33 “And blessed is your understanding, and blessed are you who has restrained me this day from coming into blood guiltiness and freeing my hand for me.”
וְאוּלָם חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מְנָעַנִי מֵהָרַע אֹתָךְ כִּי לוּלֵי מִהַרְתְּ (ותבאתי) [וַתָּבֹאת] 25:34 לִקְרָאתִי כִּי אִם־נוֹתַר לְנָבָל עַד־אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁתִּין בְּקִיר׃
1Sam. 25:34 “But surely, as the Lord, God of Israel, lives, Who was my Restraint from hurting you, for were it that you had not hurried and come to meet me, surely would not be remaining to Nabal one who is urinating on the wall by the light of morning.”
The error in this verse is in an extra yad at the end of the word in the parentheses meaning and [you had not] come. It almost seems the scribe might have meant and [you had not] come to me [to meet me]. The presumed correction is in the brackets.
וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד מִיָּדָהּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־הֵבִיאָה לוֹ וְלָהּ אָמַר עֲלִי לְשָׁלוֹם לְבֵיתֵךְ רְאִי שָׁמַעְתִּי בְקוֹלֵךְ וָאֶשָּׂא 25:35 פָּנָיִךְ׃
1Sam. 25:35 Then David accepted from her hand what she had brought for him, and he said to her, “Go up in peace to your house. See, I have listened to your voice and have forgiven because of you.”
וַתָּבֹא אֲבִיגַיִל אֶל־נָבָל וְהִנֵּה־לוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה בְּבֵיתוֹ כְּמִשְׁתֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ וְלֵב נָבָל טוֹב עָלָיו וְהוּא שִׁכֹּר עַד־ 25:36 מְאֹד וְלֹא־הִגִּידָה לּוֹ דָּבָר קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל עַד־אוֹר הַבֹּקֶר׃
1Sam. 25:36 And Abigail came to Nabal and behold, there was a feast for him in his house like the feast of a king, and the heart of Nabal was merry by him as he was drunk to excess, so she did not report to him of the matter, little or much, until the light of morning.
וַיְהִי בַבֹּקֶר בְּצֵאת הַיַּיִן מִנָּבָל וַתַּגֶּד־לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיָּמָת לִבּוֹ בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְהוּא הָיָה 25:37 לְאָבֶן׃
1Sam. 25:37 So it was in the morning when the wine was gone from Nabal that his wife reported to him these things, and his heart died within him and he was stony.
וַיְהִי כַּעֲשֶׂרֶת הַיָּמִים וַיִּגֹּף יְהוָה אֶת־נָבָל וַיָּמֹת׃ 25:38
1Sam. 25:38 And it was about ten days of time when the Lord smote Nabal and he died.
וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד כִּי מֵת נָבָל וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר רָב אֶת־רִיב חֶרְפָּתִי מִיַּד נָבָל וְאֶת־עַבְדּוֹ חָשַׂךְ 25:39 מֵרָעָה וְאֵת רָעַת נָבָל הֵשִׁיב יְהוָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיְדַבֵּר בַּאֲבִיגַיִל לְקַחְתָּהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃
1Sam. 25:39 And David heard that Nabal had died and he said, “Blessed is the Lord Who has pleaded the cause of my reproach at the hand of Nabal, and restrained His servant from evil. So the Lord has returned the wickedness of Nabal on his own head.” Then David sent and spoke with Abigail to take her to him for a wife.
וַיָּבֹאוּ עַבְדֵי דָוִד אֶל־אֲבִיגַיִל הַכַּרְמֶלָה וַיְדַבְּרוּ אֵלֶיהָ לֵאמֹר דָּוִד שְׁלָחָנוּ אֵלַיִךְ לְקַחְתֵּךְ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 25:40
1Sam. 25:40 And the servants of David came to Abigail at Carmel and spoke to her saying, “David has sent us to you to take you to him for a wife.”
וַתָּקָם וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה וַתֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה אֲמָתְךָ לְשִׁפְחָה לִרְחֹץ רַגְלֵי עַבְדֵי אֲדֹנִי׃ 25:41
1Sam. 25:41 And she rose and bowed, face to the ground, and said, “Behold, your handmaid is for being a maid servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord.”
וַתְּמַהֵר וַתָּקָם אֲבִיגַיִל וַתִּרְכַּב עַל־הַחֲמוֹר וְחָמֵשׁ נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ הַהֹלְכוֹת לְרַגְלָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מַלְאֲכֵי 25:42
דָוִד וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃
1Sam. 25:42 Then Abigail hurried and rose and rode on the ass with five of her damsels walking following her, and she went after the messengers of David, and she was his for a wife.
וְאֶת־אֲחִינֹעַם לָקַח דָּוִד מִיִּזְרְעֶאל וַתִּהְיֶיןָ גַּם־שְׁתֵּיהֶן לוֹ לְנָשִׁים׃ 25:43
1Sam. 25:43 And, David took Achinoam from Jezreel, and both of them were his also for wives.
וְשָׁאוּל נָתַן אֶת־מִיכַל בִּתּוֹ אֵשֶׁת דָּוִד לְפַלְטִי בֶן־לַיִשׁ אֲשֶׁר מִגַּלִּים׃ 25:44
1Sam. 25:44 And Saul gave Michal, his daughter, wife of David, to Palti son of Laish, who was from Gallim. [Return to 2Sam. 21:8]
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