Ezekiel 46


כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה שַׁעַר הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית הַפֹּנֶה קָדִים יִהְיֶה סָגוּר שֵׁשֶׁת יְמֵי הַמַּעֲשֶׂה וּבְיֹום   46:1          הַשַּׁבָּת יִפָּתֵחַ וּבְיֹום הַחֹדֶשׁ יִפָּתֵחַ׃

Ezek. 46:1   “Thus says the Master, the Lord:  The gate of the inner courtyard looking east shall be closed the six days of work, but on the day of the Sabbath it shall be open, and on the day of the new moon it shall be open.”

Remember that the outer east gate is to remain always closed (Ezek. 44:1 and 2), but the gate to the inner court, closed during the work week, is opened only on Sabbaths and new moons.

וּבָא הַנָּשִׂיא דֶּרֶךְ אוּלָם הַשַּׁעַר מִחוּץ וְעָמַד עַל־מְזוּזַת הַשַּׁעַר וְעָשׂוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־עֹולָתֹו   46:2                וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָיו וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָה עַל־מִפְתַּן הַשַּׁעַר וְיָצָא וְהַשַּׁעַר לֹא־יִסָּגֵר עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

Ezek. 46:2   “And the prince shall enter by way of the porch of the gate from outside, and he shall stand by the doorpost of the gate and the priests shall prepare his burnt offering and his peace offerings, and he shall worship on the threshold of the gate; then he may exit, but the gate may not be closed until the evening.”

It appears that the prince is not to actually enter the inner courtyard, but is to remain at the doorpost of the gate.  Presumably he is to enter the outer courtyard through one of other outer gates.

וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ עַם־הָאָרֶץ פֶּתַח הַשַּׁעַר הַהוּא בַּשַּׁבָּתֹות וּבֶחֳדָשִׁים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃   46:3

Ezek. 46:3   “And the people of the land shall worship at the entrance of that gate on Sabbaths and on new moons before the Lord.”

The people were also permitted to worship near that gate as well, but only on the Sabbaths and new moons, and I presume they had to remain in and pass through the outer courtyard from either the north or south gates.  There’s something peculiar in the Hebrew of this verse, though.  There is no word for the conjunction at in the English.  I don’t know that I’ve ever encountered this problem before (or after).  The Hebrew can be thought to mean “... the people of the land shall worship the entrance of that gate...,” except for the fact that there is no connecting et before the word for the entrance.  Another of Ezekiel’s seemingly careless oversights?

וְהָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִב הַנָּשִׂיא לַיהוָה בְּיֹום הַשַּׁבָּת שִׁשָּׁה כְבָשִׂים תְּמִיםִם וְאַיִל תָּמִים׃   46:4

Ezek. 46:4   “And the burnt offering that the prince shall present to the Lord on the Sabbath day shall be six perfect lambs and a perfect ram,

וּמִנְחָה אֵיפָה לָאַיִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂים מִנְחָה מַתַּת יָדֹו וְשֶׁמֶן הִין לָאֵיפָה׃   46:5

Ezek. 46:5   and a meal offering of an ephah for the ram, and a meal offering of a gift of his hand for the lambs, and a hin of oil to an ephah.”

The offerings specified by vss. 46:3, 4 and 5 are different from those found in Numb. 28:9 and 10.  There has been considerable discussion on this.  Some say it’s a new law for the future Israel.  Others say the difference will be explained by Elijah.

וּבְיֹום הַחֹדֶשׁ פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר תְּמִיםִם וְשֵׁשֶׁת כְּבָשִׂם וָאַיִל תְּמִיםִם יִהְיוּ׃   46:6

Ezek. 46:6   “And on the day of the new moon they shall be the perfect young bullock and the six lambs and the perfect ram.”

וְאֵיפָה לַפָּר וְאֵיפָה לָאַיִל יַעֲשֶׂה מִנְחָה וְלַכְּבָשִׂים כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדֹו וְשֶׁמֶן הִין לָאֵיפָה׃   46:7

Ezek. 46:7   “And he shall prepare a meal offering of an ephah for the bullock, and an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs as his hand may secure, and a hin of oil to an ephah.”

The offerings specified by vss. 46:6 and 7 are also different from those found in Numb. 28:11 to 14.  I wonder if the offerings of the prince are different from those of the people.

וּבְבֹוא הַנָּשִׂיא דֶּרֶךְ אוּלָם הַשַּׁעַר יָבֹוא וּבְדַרְכֹּו יֵצֵא׃   46:8

Ezek. 46:8   “And on the entry of the prince, he shall come in by way of the porch of the gate, and he shall go out by the way of it.”

וּבְבֹוא עַם־הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בַּמֹּועֲדִים הַבָּא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר צָפֹון לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹת יֵצֵא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר נֶגֶב   46:9         וְהַבָּא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר נֶגֶב יֵצֵא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר צָפֹונָה לֹא יָשׁוּב דֶּרֶךְ הַשַּׁעַר אֲשֶׁר־בָּא בֹו כִּי                      נִכְחֹו (יֵצְאוּ) [יֵצֵא]׃

Ezek. 46:9   “But with the entry of the people of the land before the Lord at the appointed seasons, one entering by way of the north gate to worship shall exit by way of the south gate, and one entering by way of the south gate shall exit by way of the north gate; he shall not return by way of the gate by which he had entered, but he shall exit in front of him.”

The word in the parentheses should be singular, and therefore should not have the vav suffix.  It is removed in the correction in the brackets.

וְהַנָּשִׂיא בְּתֹוכָם בְּבֹואָם יָבֹוא וּבְצֵאתָם יֵצֵאוּ׃   46:10

Ezek. 46:10   And the prince shall enter among them on their entry, and his exit shall be with their going out.”

וּבַחַגִּים וּבַמֹּועֲדִים תִּהְיֶה הַמִּנְחָה אֵיפָה לַפָּר וְאֵיפָה לָאַיִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂים מַתַּת יָדֹו וְשֶׁמֶן הִין לָאֵיפָה׃   46:11

Ezek. 46:11   “And on the festivals and in the appointed seasons the meal offering shall be an ephah for a bullock and an ephah for a ram, and for the lambs a gift of his hand, and a hin of oil to an ephah.”

וְכִי־יַעֲשֶׂה הַנָּשִׂיא נְדָבָה עֹולָה אֹו־שְׁלָמִים נְדָבָה לַיהוָה וּפָתַח לֹו אֶת־הַשַּׁעַר הַפֹּנֶה קָדִים וְעָשָׂה   46:12 אֶת־עֹלָתֹו וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָיו כַּאֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה בְּיֹום הַשַּׁבָּת וְיָצָא וְסָגַר אֶת־הַשַּׁעַר אַחֲרֵי צֵאתֹו׃

Ezek. 46:12   “And when the prince shall prepare a free-will offering, a burnt offering, or peace offerings, a free-will offering to the Lord, then someone shall open the gate looking east for him, and he shall prepare his burnt offering or his peace offerings as he would do on the Sabbath day; as he shall go out, then someone shall close the gate after his exit.”

וְכֶבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתֹו תָּמִים תַּעֲשֶׂה עֹולָה לַיֹּום לַיהֹוָה בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתֹו׃   46:13

Ezek. 46:13   “And you shall prepare a perfect lamb of the first year, a burnt offering for each day, to the Lord; every morning you shall prepare it.”

There is also a second-person singular pronoun in this verse with no obvious antecedent.  I imagine it must refer to the prince.

וּמִנְחָה תַעֲשֶׂה עָלָיו בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר שִׁשִּׁית הָאֵיפָה וְשֶׁמֶן שְׁלִישִׁית הַהִין לָרֹס אֶת־הַסֹּלֶת מִנְחָה   46:14     לַיהוָה חֻקֹּות עֹולָם תָּמִיד׃

Ezek. 46:14   “And you shall prepare a meal offering together with it every morning of a sixth of an ephah and a third of a hin of oil to moisten the fine flour, a meal offering to the Lord, one of the continuous statutes forever.”

The same second-person singular pronoun appears in this verse with no obvious antecedent.  I imagine it also refers to the prince.

וַעָשׂוּ אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וְאֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶן בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר עֹולַת תָּמִיד׃   46:15

Ezek. 46:15   “So they shall prepare the lamb and the meal offering and the oil every morning, a burnt offering continually.”

The daily offerings specified by vss. 46:13 to 15 are similar to those found in Numb. 28:3 to 6, except that the size of the meal offerings are not the same and the evening sacrifice is omitted here.

כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה כִּי־יִתֵּן הַנָּשִׂיא מַתָּנָה לְאִישׁ מִבָּנָיו נַחֲלָתֹו הִיא לְבָנָיו תִּהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּתָם הִיא   46:16       בְּנַחֲלָה׃

Ezek. 46:16   “Thus says the Master, the Lord:  When the prince shall give a gift to any from his sons, it is his inheritance; his sons' it shall be; it is their possession by inheritance.”

וְכִי־יִתֵּן מַתָּנָה מִנַּחֲלָתֹו לְאַחַד מֵעֲבָדָיו וְהָיְתָה לֹּו עַד־שְׁנַת הַדְּרֹור וְשָׁבַת לַנָּשִׂיא אַךְ נַחֲלָתֹו בָּנָיו   46:17 לָהֶם תִּהְיֶה׃

Ezek. 46:17   “But if he shall give a gift out of his inheritance to one from his servants, then it shall be his until the year of liberty, when it shall return to the prince.  Surely his inheritance is of his sons, it shall be theirs.”

I assume the “year of liberty” is the Jubilee year, which is to occur every fifty years as described in the 25th chapter of Leviticus.  And I suppose “the prince” means the son of the prince who gives the gift if the latter has passed on by the time of the Jubilee year.

וְלֹא־יִקַּח הַנָּשִׂיא מִנַּחֲלַת הָעָם לְהֹונֹתָם מֵאֲחֻזָּתָם מֵאֲחֻזָּתֹו יַנְחִל אֶת־בָּנָיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָפֻצוּ   46:18 עַמִּי אִישׁ מֵאֲחֻזָּתֹו׃

Ezek. 46:18   And the prince shall not take from the inheritance of the people to cheat them out of their property -- from his own property he shall give his sons’ inheritance -- in order that My people not be scattered, each from his possession.”

וַיְבִיאֵנִי בַמָּבֹוא אֲשֶׁר עַל־כֶּתֶף הַשַּׁעַר אֶל־הַלִּשְׁכֹות הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים הַפֹּנֹות צָפֹונָה וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם   46:19 מָקֹום (בַּיַּרְכֹתִם) [בַּיַּרְכָתַיִם] יָמָּה׃

Ezek. 46:19   Then he brought me, by the entrance that was on the side of the gate, to the rooms of holiness, concerning the priests, looking northward, and behold, there was a place in the farthest parts to the west.

The word in the parentheses is missing a yad.  The correction is in the brackets.

וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי זֶה הַמָּקֹום אֲשֶׁר יְבַשְּׁלוּ־שָׁם הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הָאָשָׁם וְאֶת־הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר יֹאפוּ   46:20

 אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לְבִלְתִּי הֹוצִיא אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹונָה לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם׃

Ezek. 46:20   And he said to me, “This is the place where the priests shall cook the guilt offering and the sin offering, that they shall bake the meal offering, in order not to bring forth to the outer courtyard to sanctify the people.”

וַיֹּוצִיאֵנִי אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה וַיַּעֲבִירֵנִי אֶל־אַרְבַּעַת מִקְצֹועֵי הֶחָצֵר וְהִנֵּה חָצֵר בְּמִקְצֹעַ הֶחָצֵר חָצֵר   46:21 בְּמִקְצֹעַ הֶחָצֵר׃

Ezek. 46:21   Then he brought me out to the outer courtyard and had me pass by the four corners of the courtyard and behold, a courtyard in a corner of the courtyard, a courtyard in a corner of the courtyard.

בְּאַרְבַּעַת מִקְצֹעֹות הֶחָצֵר חֲצֵרֹות קְטֻרֹות אַרְבָּעִים אֹרֶךְ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים רֹחַב מִדָּה אַחַת לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם   46:22 מְהֻקְצָעֹות׃

Ezek. 46:22   In the four corners of the courtyard were enclosed courtyards forty long and thirty broad; there was one measure for the four of them from the corners.

וְטוּר סָבִיב בָּהֶם סָבִיב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם וּמְבַשְּׁלֹות עָשׂוּי מִתַּחַת הַטִּירֹות סָבִיב׃   46:23

Ezek. 46:23   And a row was surrounding in them all around for the four of them, with the makings of cooking places underneath the rows all around.

וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָי אֵלֶּה בֵּית הַמְבַשְּׁלִים אֲשֶׁר יְבַשְּׁלוּ־שָׁם מְשָׁרְתֵי הַבַּיִת אֶת־זֶבַח הָעָם׃   46:24

Ezek. 46:24   Then he said to me, “These within are the cooking places where the ministers of the house will cook the sacrifice of the people.”

As I understand these last five verses, the priests will cook the guilt and sin offerings in the inner courtyard (and burn the burnt offerings), and the descendants of the sinful Levites (see Ezek. 44:10 to 14) will cook in the corner courts of the outer courtyard.


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