Daniel 11


Two initial observations about this chapter:  First, all or at least most scholars assume this chapter, a most complicated prophecy, refers to events in the then near future, maybe a couple of hundred years or so after Daniel’s time.  However, I suspect, primarily because of the words in Chapter 12, that the phrases end time and end of time are meant to be literal; the events depicted here did not happen as assumed; they will happen in our distant future.  Second, this chapter contains the most exceptions in the entire bible to my theory of the Vav Conversive, the non-inverting vav.  It actually contains 23 exceptions, which I will indicate by underlining the words involved.  Among these exceptions are numerous properly reversing vavs as well.   Finally, as I mentioned in the beginning of Chapter 10, this chapter does not seem to follow from that chapter.  That chapter ends with an angel speaking to Daniel.  Here Daniel is speaking to someone whom we cannot identify.  I believe that Chapter 10 is followed by Chapter 12.  Please read what I have written with regard to v. 11:3 below.  When you reach Chapter 12, you’ll see why I imagine the order of these three chapters to be out of sequence.

וַאֲנִי בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הַמָּדִי עָמְדִי לְמַחֲזִיק וּלְמָעוֹז לוֹ׃   11:1

Dani. 11:1   Then I, in the first year for Darius, the Mede, my stand was to be a supporter and a stronghold for him.

וְעַתָּה אֱמֶת אַגִּיד לָךְ הִנֵּה־עוֹד שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים עֹמְדִים לְפָרַס וְהָרְבִיעִי יַעֲשִׁיר עֹשֶׁר־גָּדוֹל מִכֹּל   11:2

וּכְחֶזְקָתוֹ בְעָשְׁרוֹ יָעִיר הַכֹּל אֵת מַלְכוּת יָוָן׃

Dani. 11:2   But now I must declare truth to you.  Behold, three more kings shall be standing in Persia, and the fourth shall gain the greatest wealth of all, and at his strongest because of his wealth he shall stir up all the kingdom of Greece.

According to me, the “you” in the first part of this verse refers to an unidentified Israelite, not to Daniel.  Read my remarks pertaining to Dani. 12:1 for an explanation of my belief.

וְעָמַד מֶלֶךְ גִּבּוֹר וּמָשַׁל מִמְשָׁל רַב וְעָשָׂה כִּרְצוֹנוֹ׃   11:3

Dani. 11:3   Then shall stand up a mighty king and shall rule, a great ruler, and he shall do according to his will.

וּכְעָמְדֹו תִּשָּׁבֵר מַלְכוּתֹו וְתֵחָץ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחֹות הַשָּׁמָיִם וְלֹא לְאַחֲרִיתֹו וְלֹא כְמָשְׁלֹו אֲשֶׁר מָשָׁל כִּי   11:4

 תִנָּתֵשׁ מַלְכוּתֹו וְלַאֲחֵרִים מִלְּבַד־אֵלֶּה׃

Dani. 11:4   But at his standing up his kingdom shall be shattered and divided to the four winds of heaven, but not to his posterity or according to his dominion that he ruled.  When his kingdom will be plucked up, then it shall be for others than these.

וְיֶחֱזַק מֶלֶךְ־הַנֶּגֶב וּמִן־שָׂרָיו וְיֶחֱזַק עָלָיו וּמָשָׁל מִמְשָׁל רַב מֶמְשַׁלְתּוֹ׃   11:5

Dani. 11:5   And the king of the south shall be strong, also one of his princes, but he will be strong over him and have dominion.  His dominion shall be a great dominion.

וּלְקֵץ שָׁנִים יִתְחַבָּרוּ וּבַת מֶלֶךְ־הַנֶּגֶב תָּבוֹא אֶל־מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵישָׁרִים וְלֹא־תַעְצֹר כּוֹחַ   11:5

  הַזְּרוֹע וְלֹא יַעֲמֹד וּזְרֹעוֹ וְתִנָּתֵן הִיא וּמְבִיאֶיהָ וְהַיֹּלְדָהּ וּמַחֲזִקָהּ בָּעִתִּים׃

Dani. 11:6   Then toward the end of years they shall join together, and the daughter of the king of the south shall go to the king of the north to make things right, but she will not retain strength of force, and he will not endure, and his force, yet she will be delivered up, with those bringing her and he begetting her and strengthening her, because of the times.

וְעָמַד מִנֵּצֶר שָׁרָשֶׁיהָ כַּנּוֹ וְיָבֹא אֶל־הַחַיִל וְיָבֹא בְּמָעוֹז מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן וְעָשָׂה בָהֶם וְהֶחֱזִיק׃   11:7

Dani. 11:7   But a shoot of her roots shall stand his place, and he shall come to the army and go into the stronghold of the king of the north and deal with them, and prevail.

וְגַם אֱלֹהֵיהֶם עִם־נְסִכֵיהֶם עִם־כְּלֵי חֶמְדָּתָם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב בַּשְּׁבִי יָבִא מִצְרָיִם וְהוּא שָׁנִים יַעֲמֹד מִמֶּלֶךְ   11:8


Dani. 11:8   And their gods, with their molten images, with their precious vessels of silver and gold, he shall also bring into the captivity of Egypt; then years he shall remain from the king of the north.

וּבָא בְּמַלְכוּת מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְשָׁב אֶל־אַדְמָתוֹ׃   11:9

Dani. 11:9   Then he shall come into the kingdom of the king of the south, and return to his own land.

וּבְנֹו) [וּבָנָיו] יִתְגָּרוּ וְאָסְפוּ הֲמֹון חֲיָלִים רַבִּים וּבָא בֹוא וְשָׁטַף וְעָבָר וְיָשֹׁב (וְיִתְגָּרוּ) [וְיִתְגָּרֶה   11:10

 עַד־(מָעֻזָּה) [מָעֻזֹּו]׃

Dani. 11:10   And his sons will become agitated and assemble a multitude of great forces, and he shall come entering and engulf and pass through, then return and engage himself in strife up to the stronghold.

The word before the left parenthesis is misspelled.  It is singular (his son) and should be plural (his sons), as shown correctly in the brackets.  Then the word in the first complete set of parentheses should have a heh suffix in place of the vav suffix,  The correction is after the right bracket.  The error indicated in the parentheses at the end of the verse is questionable.  The correction in the last set of brackets makes the translation his stronghold.  I don’t believe anyone alive (or has lived since the time of Daniel) knows which version is correct.  So, as usual, I’m inclined to assume the scribe was correct.

וְיִתְמַרְמַר מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְיָצָא וְנִלְחַם עִמֹּו עִם־מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפֹון וְהֶעֱמִיד הָמֹון רָב וְנִתַּן הֶהָמֹון בְּיָדֹו׃   11:11

Dani. 11:11   And the king of the south shall be enraged and come forth and wage war with him, with the king of the north, and he shall raise up a great multitude, but the multitude shall be delivered into his hand.

וְנִשָּׂא הֶהָמֹון (יָרוּם) [וְרָם] לְבָבֹו וְהִפִּיל רִבֹּאֹות וְלֹא יָעֹוז׃   11:12

Dani. 11:12   And the multitude shall be carried away -- his heart shall be uplifted as he casts down tens of thousands, yet he shall prevail not.

The word in the parentheses is assumed to be incorrect, missing a vav.  I translate the word as originally spelled (as “[his heart] shall be uplifted”) without any awkwardness.  So I conclude the correction is unnecessary.

וְשָׁב מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן וְהֶעֱמִיד הָמוֹן רַב מִן־הָרִאשׁוֹן וּלְקֵץ הָעִתִּים שָׁנִים יָבוֹא בוֹא בְּחַיִל גָּדוֹל   11:13

וּבִרְכוּשׁ רָב׃

Dani. 11:13   And the king of the north shall return and raise up a multitude greater than before, and toward the end of times of years he shall come entering with a great army and with much goods.

וּבָעִתִּים הָהֵם רַבִּים יַעַמְדוּ עַל־מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וּבְנֵי פָּרִיצֵי עַמְּךָ יִנַּשְּׂאוּ לְהַעֲמִיד חָזוֹן וְנִכְשָׁלוּ׃   11:14

Dani. 11:14   And in those times many shall stand up against the king of the south.  Even the children of the violent ones of your people shall rise up to establish the vision, but they will stumble.

וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן וְיִשְׁפֹּךְ סוֹלֲלָה וְלָכַד עִיר מִבְצָרוֹת וּזְרֹעוֹת הַנֶּגֶב לֹא יַעֲמֹדוּ וְעַם מִבְחָרָיו וְאֵין   11:15

 כֹּחַ לַעֲמֹד׃

Dani. 11:15   And the king of the north shall come and throw up a mound and capture any city of fortifications, as the arms of the south will not endure, or any people of his choosing, as there shall be none of strength to endure.

וְיַעַשׂ הַבָּא אֵלָיו כִּרְצוֹנוֹ וְאֵין עוֹמֵד לְפָנָיו וְיַעֲמֹד בְּאֶרֶץ־הַצְּבִי וְכָלָה בְיָדוֹ׃   11:16

Dani. 11:16   But one who comes to him shall do according to his will and there will be none standing before him, and he shall endure in the beautiful land with destruction in his hand.

וְיָשֵׂם פָּנָיו לָבוֹא בְּתֹקֶף כָּל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וִישָׁרִים עִמּוֹ וְעָשָׂה וּבַת הַנָּשִׁים יִתֶּן־לוֹ לְהַשְׁחִיתָהּ וְלֹא   11:17

  תַעֲמֹד וְלֹא־לוֹ תִהְיֶה׃

Dani. 11:17   And he shall set his face to coming with the strength of all his kingdom and the upright with him, and he shall accomplish, and the daughter of women he shall give him to destroy it, and it shall not endure, but it shall not be his.

וְיָשֵׁב) [וְיָשֵׂם] פָּנָיו לְאִיִּים וְלָכַד רַבִּים וְהִשְׁבִּית קָצִין חֶרְפָּתֹו לֹו בִּלְתִּי חֶרְפָּתֹו יָשִׁיב לֹו׃   11:18

Dani. 11:18   Then he shall set his face to the islands, and capture many, but a chieftain shall cause his reproach for him to end so that he does not restore his reproach to himself.

The word before the left parenthesis may be in error.  If it were correct, the word would be translated as “Then he shall return ...,” which appears to be awkward at best.  The assumed correction is in the brackets.  See the next verse for an assumed correct use of this word (except it employs a non-reversing vav).

וְיָשֵׁב פָּנָיו לְמָעוּזֵּי אַרְצוֹ וְנִכְשַׁל וְנָפַל וְלֹא יִמָּצֵא׃   11:19

Dani. 11:19   Then he shall return his face toward the strongholds of his land, but he shall stumble and fall and not be found.

וְעָמַד עַל־כַּנּוֹ מַעֲבִיר נוֹגֵשׂ הֶדֶר מַלְכוּת וּבְיָמִים אֲחָדִים יִשָּׁבֵר וְלֹא בְאַפַּיִם וְלֹא בְמִלְחָמָה׃   11:20

Dani. 11:20   And one shall arise in his place making an exactor pass over the glory of the kingdom, but in a few days he shall be broken, though not with anger or in war.

וְעָמַד עַל־כַּנּוֹ נִבְזֶה וְלֹא־נָתְנוּ עָלָיו הוֹד מַלְכוּת וּבָא בְשַׁלְוָה וְהֶחֱזִיק מַלְכוּת בַּחֲלַקְלַקּוֹת׃   11:21

Dani. 11:21   Then a vile person shall arise in his place, upon whom they had not bestowed the majesty of the kingdom, but he will come in prosperity and take hold of the kingdom with fine promises.

וּזְרֹעוֹת הַשֶּׁטֶף יִשָּׁטְפוּ מִלְּפָנָיו וְיִשָּׁבֵרוּ וְגַם נְגִיד בְּרִית׃   11:22

Dani. 11:22   And the arms of the flood shall be swept away from before him and be broken, and even the prince of the covenant.

The word translated as flood is assumed by bible commentators to be a metaphor for a great host.

וּמִן־הִתְחַבְּרוּת אֵלָיו יַעֲשֶׂה מִרְמָה וְעָלָה וְעָצַם בִּמְעַט־גּוֹי׃   11:23

Dani. 11:23   And from joining himself to him, he shall act deceitfully and grow and become mighty in a small nation.

בְּשַׁלְוָה וּבְמִשְׁמַנֵּי מְדִינָה יָבוֹא וְעָשָׂה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָשׂוּ אֲבֹתָיו וַאֲבוֹת אֲבֹתָיו בִּזָּה וְשָׁלָל וּרְכוּשׁ לָהֶם   11:24

 יִבְזוֹר וְעַל מִבְצָרִים יְחַשֵּׁב מַחְשְׁבֹתָיו וְעַד־עֵת׃

Dani. 11:24   He will come in prosperity and in the fat places of the province, and do what his fathers or the fathers of his fathers had not done; he shall scatter booty and spoil and goods for them, and devise his plans regarding strongholds, but while there is time.

וְיָעֵר כֹּחוֹ וּלְבָבוֹ עַל־מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב בְּחַיִל גָּדוֹל וּמֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב יִתְגָּרֶה לַמִּלְחָמָה בְּחַיִל־גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם   11:25

עַד־מְאֹד וְלֹא יַעֲמֹד כִּי־יַחְשְׁבוּ עָלָיו מַחֲשָׁבוֹת׃

Dani. 11:25   And he will rouse his strength and his mind against the king of the south with a great army, and the king of the south shall engage himself for war and an extremely mighty and great army, but he will not endure, for they will have devised plans against him.

וְאֹכְלֵי פַת־בָּגוֹ יִשְׁבְּרוּהוּ וְחֵילוֹ יִשְׁטוֹף וְנָפְלוּ חֲלָלִים רַבִּים׃   11:26

Dani. 11:26   So the eaters of his food shall crush him, and his army shall be engulfed, and will fall many slain.

וּשְׁנֵיהֶם הַמְּלָכִים לְבָבָם לְמֵרָע וְעַל־שֻׁלְחָן אֶחָד כָּזָב יְדַבֵּרוּ וְלֹא תִצְלָח כִּי־עוֹד קֵץ לַמּוֹעֵד׃   11:27

Dani. 11:27   While the hearts of both of the kings will be to mischief that at the same table they could speak falsehood, yet it cannot succeed, for it will be almost the appointed time's end.

וְיָשֹׁב אַרְצוֹ בִּרְכוּשׁ גָּדוֹל וּלְבָבוֹ עַל־בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂה וְשָׁב לְאַרְצוֹ׃   11:28

Dani. 11:28   And he will turn back to his own land with great property and his heart will be against the holy covenant.  So he shall prepare and turn back to his own land.

לַמּוֹעֵד יָשׁוּב וּבָא בַנֶּגֶב וְלֹא־תִהְיֶה כָרִאשֹׁנָה וְכָאַחֲרֹנָה׃   11:29

Dani. 11:29   Toward the appointed time he shall return and come into the south, but it will not be as initially or as subsequently,

וּבָאוּ בוֹ צִיִּים כִּתִּים וְנִכְאָה וְשָׁב וְזָעַם עַל־בְּרִית־קוֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂה וְשָׁב וְיָבֵן עַל־עֹזְבֵי בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ׃   11:30

Dani. 11:30   as Cypriot ships shall come at him and he shall be cowed and turn back and be indignant against the holy covenant, and he will prepare and return and discern concerning the forsakers of the holy covenant.

וּזְרֹעִים מִמֶּנּוּ יַעֲמֹדוּ וְחִלְּלוּ הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַמָּעוֹז וְהֵסִירוּ הַתָּמִיד וְנָתְנוּ הַשִּׁקּוּץ מְשׁוֹמֵם׃   11:31

Dani. 11:31   Then forces shall rise up on his behalf and profane the protected sanctuary and abolish the continual [burnt offering] and consecrate the detestable most appalling thing.

וּמַרְשִׁיעֵי בְרִית יַחֲנִיף בַּחֲלַקּוֹת וְעַם יֹדְעֵי אֱלֹהָיו יַחֲזִקוּ וְעָשׂוּ׃   11:32

Dani. 11:32   And whoever does the wickednesses of the covenant shall be corrupted by vanities, but the people, knowers of its God, shall be strong and they shall prevail.

וּמַשְׂכִּילֵי עָם יָבִינוּ לָרַבִּים וְנִכְשְׁלוּ בְּחֶרֶב וּבְלֶהָבָה בִּשְׁבִי וּבְבִזָּה יָמִים׃   11:33

Dani. 11:33   And the wise ones of the people shall give understanding to many, but they shall stumble into sword and into flame, into captivity and into spoil for a time.

וּבְהִכָּשְׁלָם יֵעָזְרוּ עֵזֶר מְעָט וְנִלְווּ עֲלֵיהֶם רַבִּים בַּחֲלַקְלַקּוֹת׃   11:34

Dani. 11:34   And with their stumbling, many will give a little help and join themselves to them because of fine promises.

וּמִן־הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים יִכָּשְׁלוּ לִצְרוֹף בָּהֶם וּלְבָרֵר וְלַלְבֵּן עַד־עֵת קֵץ כִּי־עוֹד לַמּוֹעֵד׃   11:35

Dani. 11:35   And from the wise ones they shall stumble, to refine them and to purify and to whiten, until the end time, for it will yet be to the appointed time.

וְעָשָׂה כִרְצוֹנוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיִתְרוֹמֵם וְיִתְגַּדֵּל עַל־כָּל־אֵל וְעַל אֵל אֵלִים יְדַבֵּר נִפְלָאוֹת וְהִצְלִיחַ עַד־כָּלָה   11:36

 זַעַם כִּי נֶחֱרָצָה נֶעֱשָׂתָה׃

Dani. 11:36   And the king shall do according to his will, and he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god and speak extraordinary things against the God of gods, and he shall prosper until indignation is spent; if it is decreed, it is to be done.

וְעַל־אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתָיו לֹא יָבִין וְעַל־חֶמְדַּת נָשִׁים וְעַל־כָּל־אֱלוֹהַּ לֹא יָבִין כִּי עַל־כֹּל יִתְגַּדָּל׃   11:37

Dani. 11:37   And concerning the gods of his fathers, he shall not be attentive, or concerning the desire of women, and concerning any god, he shall not be attentive, for above all he shall magnify himself.

וְלֶאֱלֹהַּ מָעֻזִּים עַל־כַּנּוֹ יְכַבֵּד וְלֶאֱלוֹהַּ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדָעֻהוּ אֲבֹתָיו יְכַבֵּד בְּזָהָב וּבְכֶסֶף וּבְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה   11:38


Dani. 11:38   But he shall give honor to the god of strongholds upon his pedestal, and to a god that his fathers did not know he shall give honor with gold and with silver and with precious stone and with other delightful gifts.

וְעָשָׂה לְמִבְצְרֵי מָעֻזִּים עִם־אֱלֹוהַּ נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר (הִכִּיר) [יַכִּיר] יַרְבֶּה כָבֹוד וְהִמְשִׁילָם בָּרַבִּים וַאֲדָמָה   11:39

 יְחַלֵּק בִּמְחִיר׃

Dani. 11:39   And he will attend to the most fortified of the strongholds with a foreign god that he acknowledges; he shall see increasing glory and cause them to rule among many and divide the land according to value.

Once more we have a questionable error.  The word in the parentheses is assumed to be improperly in the perfect (present) tense.  As spelled, it is translated by me as he acknowledges, while the commentators assume it should be more correctly translated as he will acknowledge.  But the perfect tense means an ongoing event, which my translation implies.  So I believe there is no error and the correction in the brackets is unnecessary.

וּבְעֵת קֵץ יִתְנַגַּח עִמּוֹ מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְיִשְׂתָּעֵר עָלָיו מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים וּבָאֳנִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וּבָא   11:40

 בַאֲרָצוֹת וְשָׁטַף וְעָבָר׃

Dani. 11:40   Then in the end time the king of the south shall wage war against him, but the king of the north shall storm over him with chariot and with horsemen and with many ships, and he will enter the lands and engulf and overflow.

וּבָא בְּאֶרֶץ הַצְּבִי וְרַבּוֹת יִכָּשֵׁלוּ וְאֵלֶּה יִמָּלְטוּ מִיָּדוֹ אֱדוֹם וּמוֹאָב וְרֵאשִׁית בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃   11:41

Dani. 11:41   And he shall enter the beautiful land and many places will be weakened, but these shall be delivered from his hand:  Edom and Moab and the best of the children of Ammon.

וְיִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ בַּאֲרָצוֹת וְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֹא תִהְיֶה לִפְלֵיטָה׃   11:42

Dani. 11:42   And he shall extend his hand into the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not be escaping.

וּמָשַׁל בְּמִכְמַנֵּי הַזָּהָב וְהַכֶּסֶף וּבְכֹל חֲמֻדוֹת מִצְרָיִם וְלֻבִים וְכֻשִׁים בְּמִצְעָדָיו׃   11:43

Dani. 11:43   Then he shall be ruler of the hidden treasures of gold and silver and of all the delightful things of Egypt, with the Libyans and the Ethiopians at his steps.

וּשְׁמֻעוֹת יְבַהֲלֻהוּ מִמִּזְרָח וּמִצָּפוֹן וְיָצָא בְּחֵמָא גְדֹלָה לְהַשְׁמִיד וּלְהַחֲרִים רַבִּים׃   11:44

Dani. 11:44   Then news from the east and from the north shall alarm him and he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly destroying many.

וְיִטַּע אָהֳלֶי אַפַּדְנוֹ בֵּין יַמִּים לְהַר־צְבִי־קֹדֶשׁ וּבָא עַד־קִצּוֹ וְאֵין עוֹזֵר לוֹ׃   11:45

Dani. 11:45   And he shall fix the dwellings of his palace between the seas to the beautiful holy mountain, and he shall come to his end, yet none helping him.

I need make no comment about the esoteric and incomprehensible nature of these prophecies.  The next chapter says it all for me.

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