וַתְּהִי הַמִּלְחָמָה אֲרֻכָּה בֵּין בֵּית שָׁאוּל וּבֵין בֵּית דָּוִד וְדָוִד הֹלֵךְ וְחָזֵק וּבֵית שָׁאוּל הֹלְכִים וְדַלִּים׃ 3:1
2Sam. 3:1 And the war between the house of Saul and the house of David was long, and David grew stronger and stronger while those of the house of Saul grew weaker and weaker.
וַיֵּלְדוּ) [וַיִּוָּלְדוּ] לְדָוִד בָּנִים בְּחֶבְרוֹן וַיְהִי בְכוֹרוֹ אַמְנוֹן לַאֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִת׃ 3:2
2Sam. 3:2 And sons were born to David in Hebron, and his first born was Amnon by Achinoam, the Jezreelitess.
The form of the verb (first word, before the left parenthesis) is incorrect. Strictly speaking, this is not a spelling error, but an error in grammar. The correct form is in the brackets.
וּמִשְׁנֵהוּ כִלְאָב (לַאֲבִיגֵל) [לַאֲבִיגַיִל] אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִי וְהַשְּׁלִשִׁי אַבְשָׁלֹום בֶּן־מַעֲכָה בַּת־תַּלְמַי 3:3
2Sam. 3:3 And his second was Chileab by Abigail, wife of Nabal, the Carmelite. And the third was Absalom, born of Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur.
[Return to 2Sam. 13:1] [Return to 2Sam. 15:7]
The error indicated in the name of Abigail within the parentheses is not a definite error. It could be considered an acceptable spelling variation, of which there are many in the bible. However, all the other spellings of Abigail in the two books of Samuel are as shown in the brackets.
וְהָרְבִיעִי אֲדֹנִיָּה בֶן־חַגִּית וְהַחֲמִישִׁי שְׁפַטְיָה בֶן־אֲבִיטָל׃ 3:4
2Sam. 3:4 And the fourth was Adonijah, born of Haggith. And the fifth was Shaphatiah, born of Abital. [Return to 1Kin. 1:5]
וְהַשִּׁשִּׁי יִתְרְעָם לְעֶגְלָה אֵשֶׁת דָּוִד אֵלֶּה יֻלְּדוּ לְדָוִד בְּחֶבְרוֹן׃ 3:5
2Sam. 3:5 And the sixth was Ithream, by Eglah, wife of David. These were born to David in Hebron.
וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת הַמִּלְחָמָה בֵּין בֵּית שָׁאוּל וּבֵין בֵּית דָּוִד וְאַבְנֵר הָיָה מִתְחַזֵּק בְּבֵית שָׁאוּל׃ 3:6
2Sam. 3:6 And it was while the war between the house of Saul and the house of David was continuing that it was Abner who was strongest in the house of Saul.
וּלְשָׁאוּל פִּלֶגֶשׁ וּשְׁמָהּ רִצְפָּה בַת־אַיָּה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אַבְנֵר מַדּוּעַ בָּאתָה אֶל־פִּילֶגֶשׁ אָבִי׃ 3:7
2Sam. 3:7 Now there had been a concubine for Saul and her name was Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, and he said to Abner, “Why have you gone in to the concubine of my father?”
[Return to 2Sam. 21:8]
The pronoun “he” presumably refers to Ish-bosheth. See the next verse.
וַיִּחַר לְאַבְנֵר מְאֹד עַל־דִּבְרֵי אִישׁ־בֹּשֶׁת וַיֹּאמֶר הֲרֹאשׁ כֶּלֶב אָנֹכִי אֲשֶׁר לִיהוּדָה הַיּוֹם אֶעֱשֶׂה־חֶסֶד 3:8 עִם־בֵּית שָׁאוּל אָבִיךָ אֶל־אֶחָיו וְאֶל־מֵרֵעֵהוּ וְלֹא הִמְצִיתִךָ בְּיַד־דָּוִד וַתִּפְקֹד עָלַי עֲוֺן הָאִשָּׁה הַיּוֹם׃
2Sam. 3:8 Then the anger of Abner's was great over the words of Ish-bosheth and he said, “Am I a dog that is new for Judah? Today I will show kindness to the house of Saul, your father, to his brethren, and to his friends, by not delivering you into the hand of David that you set the mischief of a woman on me today.”
כֹּה־יַעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים לְאַבְנֵר וְכֹה יֹסִיף לוֹ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לְדָוִד כִּי־כֵן אֶעֱשֶׂה־לּוֹ׃ 3:9
2Sam. 3:9 “This may God do to Abner, and also more to him -- seeing as the Lord has sworn to David -- when I do so for him,
לְהַעֲבִיר הַמַּמְלָכָה מִבֵּית שָׁאוּל וּלְהָקִים אֶת־כִּסֵּא דָוִד עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל־יְהוּדָה מִדָּן וְעַד־בְּאֵר 3:10
2Sam. 3:10 by taking away the kingdom from the house of Saul and setting up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan and as far away as Beer-sheba.”
וְלֹא־יָכֹל עוֹד לְהָשִׁיב אֶת־אַבְנֵר דָּבָר מִיִּרְאָתוֹ אֹתוֹ׃ 3:11
2Sam. 3:11 And he was not able to answer Abner a word anymore out of his fearing him.
וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְנֵר מַלְאָכִים אֶל־דָּוִד (תַּחַתוֹ) [תַּחְתָּיו] לֵאמֹר לְמִי־אָרֶץ לֵאמֹר כָּרְתָה בְרִיתְךָ אִתִּי 3:12
וְהִנֵּה יָדִי עִמָּךְ לְהָסֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
2Sam. 3:12 And Abner sent messengers to David in his place to say for whom the land is, saying, “Make your league with me and, behold, my hand will be with you to bring to you all of Israel.”
The word in the parentheses is misspelled. A yad is added to it in the brackets to correct it.
וַיֹּאמֶר טוֹב אֲנִי אֶכְרֹת אִתְּךָ בְּרִית אַךְ דָּבָר אֶחָד אָנֹכִי שֹׁאֵל מֵאִתְּךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־פָּנַי כִּי 3:13 אִם־לִפְנֵי הֱבִיאֲךָ אֵת מִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל בְּבֹאֲךָ לִרְאוֹת אֶת־פָּנָי׃
2Sam. 3:13 And he answered, “Good, I will make a league with you. Only one thing I require from you, that is to say, you cannot see my face now, not before your bringing of Michal daughter of Saul in your coming to view my face.
וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים אֶל־אִישׁ־בֹּשֶׁת בֶּן־שָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר תְּנָה אֶת־אִשְׁתִּי אֶת־מִיכַל אֲשֶׁר אֵרַשְׂתִּי לִי 3:14 בְּמֵאָה עָרְלוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃
2Sam. 3:14 And David sent messengers to Ish-bosheth son of Saul saying, “Deliver my wife, Michal, whom I betrothed to me with one hundred Philistine foreskins.
וַיִּשְׁלַח אִישׁ בֹּשֶׁת וַיִּקָּחֶהָ מֵעִם אִישׁ מֵעִם פַּלְטִיאֵל בֶּן־ (לוּש) [לָיִשׁ]׃ 3:15
2Sam. 3:15 And Ish-bosheth sent and took her from being with the man, from Paltiel son of Laish.
The name of Laish is misspelled in the parentheses, and the correction is made in the brackets.
וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתָּהּ אִישָׁהּ הָלוֹךְ וּבָכֹה אַחֲרֶיהָ עַד־בַּחֻרִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְנֵר לֵךְ שׁוּב וַיָּשֹׁב׃ 3:16
2Sam. 3:16 But her husband went with her, following behind her and complaining all the way to Bacharim. And Abner said to him, “Go, return!” And he returned.
וּדְבַר־אַבְנֵר הָיָה עִם־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר גַּם־תְּמוֹל גַּם־שִׁלְשֹׁם הֱיִיתֶם מְבַקְשִׁים אֶת־דָּוִד לְמֶלֶךְ 3:17 עֲלֵיכֶם׃
2Sam. 3:17 And the counsel of Abner was with the elders of Israel saying, “Both yesterday and before, you were seeking David to be king over you.”
וְעַתָּה עֲשׂוּ כִּי יְהוָה אָמַר אֶל־דָּוִד לֵאמֹר בְּיַד דָּוִד עַבְדִּי הוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים 3:18 וּמִיַּד כָּל־אֹיְבֵיהֶם׃
2Sam. 3:18 “So now do it! For the Lord has spoken about David saying, ‘By the hand of My servant, David, My people, Israel, is to be delivered from the hand of the Philistines and from the hand of all their enemies.”
וַיְדַבֵּר גַּם־אַבְנֵר בְּאָזְנֵי בִנְיָמִין וַיֵּלֶךְ גַּם־אַבְנֵר לְדַבֵּר בְּאָזְנֵי דָוִד בְּחֶבְרוֹן אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־טוֹב בְּעֵינֵי 3:19 יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְעֵינֵי כָּל־בֵּית בִּנְיָמִן׃
2Sam. 3:19 And Abner also spoke in the ears of Benjamin, and Abner also went to speak in the ear of David in Hebron all that was good in the eyes of Israel and in the eyes of Benjamin.
וַיָּבֹא אַבְנֵר אֶל־דָּוִד חֶבְרוֹן וְאִתּוֹ עֶשְׂרִים אֲנָשִׁים וַיַּעַשׂ דָּוִד לְאַבְנֵר וְלַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ מִשְׁתֶּה׃ 3:20
2Sam. 3:20 So Abner came to David in Hebron, and twenty men were with him. And David made a banquet for Abner and for the men who were with him.
וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְנֵר אֶל־דָּוִד אָקוּמָה וְאֵלֵכָה וְאֶקְבְּצָה אֶל־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִכְרְתוּ אִתְּךָ בְּרִית 3:21 וּמָלַכְתָּ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשֶׁךָ וַיְּשַׁלַּח דָּוִד אֶת־אַבְנֵר וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּשָׁלוֹם׃
2Sam. 3:21 And Abner said to David, “I will arise and go and gather to my lord, the king, all Israel so they may make a covenant with you that you shall reign over all that your soul desires.” And David sent Abner away and he went in peace.
וְהִנֵּה עַבְדֵי דָוִד וְיוֹאָב בָּא מֵהַגְּדוּד וְשָׁלָל רָב עִמָּם הֵבִיאוּ וְאַבְנֵר אֵינֶנּוּ עִם־דָּוִד בְּחֶבְרוֹן כִּי שִׁלְּחוֹ 3:22 וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּשָׁלוֹם׃
2Sam. 3:22 Then behold, the servants of David and Joab came from the army, and they brought a great spoil with them. But Abner was not with David in Hebron, seeing as he had sent him away and he had gone in peace.
וְיוֹאָב וְכָל־הַצָּבָא אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ בָּאוּ וַיַּגִּדוּ לְיוֹאָב לֵאמֹר בָּא־אַבְנֵר בֶּן־נֵר אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁלְּחֵהוּ וַיֵּלֶךְ 3:23 בְּשָׁלוֹם׃
2Sam. 3:23 And Joab and the entire company that was with him came, and it was told to Joab saying, “Abner son of Ner had come to the king and he sent him away, and he went in peace.”
וַיָּבֹא יוֹאָב אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָה הִנֵּה־בָא אַבְנֵר אֵלֶיךָ לָמָּה־זֶּה שִׁלַּחְתּוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ׃ 3:24
2Sam. 3:24 So Joab went to the king and said, “What have you done? Behold, Abner came to you; why is it you sent him away and he went walking away?”
יָדַעְתָּ אֶת־אַבְנֵר בֶּן־נֵר כִּי לְפַתֹּתְךָ בָּא וְלָדַעַת אֶת־מוֹצָאֲךָ וְאֶת־מִבוֹאֶךָ וְלָדַעַת אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר 3:25
2Sam. 3:25 “You know Abner son of Ner, that he came to deceive you and to know about your going out and your coming in and to know all that you are doing.”
וַיֵּצֵא יוֹאָב מֵעִם דָּוִד וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָכִים אַחֲרֵי אַבְנֵר וַיָּשִׁבוּ אֹתוֹ מִבּוֹר הַסִּרָה וְדָוִד לֹא יָדָע׃ 3:26
2Sam. 3:26 And Joab went out from being with David and he sent messengers after Abner, and they brought him back from Bor-sirah, and David did not know.
וַיָּשָׁב אַבְנֵר חֶבְרוֹן וַיַּטֵּהוּ יוֹאָב אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַשַּׁעַר לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ בַּשֶּׁלִי וַיַּכֵּהוּ שָׁם הַחֹמֶשׁ וַיָּמָת בְּדַם 3:27 עֲשָׂה־אֵל אָחִיו׃
2Sam. 3:27 When Abner was brought back to Hebron, then Joab took him aside to the middle of the gate to talk with him privately, and he smote him there to the groin, and he died, because of the blood of Asahel, his brother.
וַיִּשְׁמַע דָּוִד מֵאַחֲרֵי כֵן וַיֹּאמֶר נָקִי אָנֹכִי וּמַמְלַכְתִּי מֵעִם יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם מִדְּמֵי אַבְנֵר בֶּן־נֵר׃ 3:28
2Sam. 3:28 When afterward David heard of this, then he said, “I am innocent, and my kingdom, forever by the Lord from the blood of Abner son of Ner.”
יָחֻלוּ עַל־רֹאשׁ יוֹאָב וְאֶל כָּל־בֵּית אָבִיו וְאַל־יִכָּרֵת מִבֵּית יוֹאָב זָב וּמְצֹרָע וּמַחֲזִיק בַּפֶּלֶךְ וְנֹפֵל 3:29
2Sam. 3:29 “Let it fall upon the head of Joab and on the entire house of his father, that no issuer, or leper, or who leans on a staff, or falls by the sword, or lacks bread from the house of Joab shall be cut off.”
וְיוֹאָב וַאֲבִישַׁי אָחִיו הָרְגוּ לְאַבְנֵר עַל אֲשֶׁר הֵמִית אֶת־עֲשָׂהאֵל אֲחִיהֶם בְּגִבְעוֹן בַּמִּלְחָמָה׃ 3:30
2Sam. 3:30 So Joab and Abishai, his brother, were the slayers of Abner for the reason that he had slain Asahel, their brother, in Gibeon in the fighting.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ קִרְעוּ בִגְדֵיכֶם וְחִגְרוּ שַׂקִּים וְסִפְדוּ לִפְנֵי אַבְנֵר 3:31 וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה׃
2Sam. 3:31 Then David said to Joab and to all the people who were with him, “Rend your clothes and gird sackcloth and wail before Abner.” And king David walked behind the bier.
וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֶת־אַבְנֵר בְּחֶבְרוֹן וַיִשָּׂא הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־קוֹלוֹ וַיֵּבְךְּ אֶל־קֶבֶר אַבְנֵר וַיִּבְכּוּ כָּל־הָעָם׃ 3:32
2Sam. 3:32 And they buried Abner in Hebron, and the king lifted up his voice and wept by the grave of Abner, and all of the people wept.
Why do you suppose David was so dismayed by Abner’s death? Did he really admire Abner’s prowess as a warrior, or was he disappointed that Abner could not keep his vow to deliver all of Israel to him? After all, Abner was no friend of David’s. I must assume that he had most likely led Saul’s men whenever Saul went after David. In fact, we know he was with Saul at least once, at the camp when David removed Saul’s spear and water cruse while he slept (1Sam. 26:7).
וַיְקֹנֵן הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־אַבְנֵר וַיֹּאמַר הַכְּמוֹת נָבָל יָמוּת אַבְנֵר׃ 3:33
2Sam. 3:33 And the king lamented for Abner and he said, “Must Abner die according to the death of a churl?”
יָדֶךָ לֹא־אֲסֻרוֹת וְרַגְלֶיךָ לֹא־לִנְחֻשְׁתַּיִם הֻגָּשׁוּ כִּנְפוֹל לִפְנֵי בְנֵי־עַוְלָה נָפָלְתָּ וַיֹּסִפוּ כָל־הָעָם לִבְכּוֹת 3:34 עָלָיו׃
2Sam. 3:34 “Your hands were not bound and your legs were not set to chains; you fell like one falling before children of iniquity.” And all the people continued to weep over him.
וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לְהַבְרוֹת אֶת־דָּוִד לֶחֶם בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם וַיִּשָּׁבַע דָּוִד לֵאמֹר כֹּה יַעֲשֶׂה־לִּי אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה 3:35
יֹסִיף כִּי אִם־לִפְנֵי בוֹא־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֶטְעַם־לֶחֶם אוֹ כָל־מְאוּמָה׃
2Sam. 3:35 And the whole people came to feed David bread while it was still day, but David swore saying, “May God do thus to me and also surely more, if before the setting of the sun, I taste bread or any other thing.”
Was fasting by the mourners after a burial a custom in Israel, or had David established it at that time? It doesn’t appear to be a custom today. Usually, mourners eat soon after a funeral.
וְכָל־הָעָם הִכִּירוּ וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינֵיהֶם כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם טוֹב׃ 3:36
2Sam. 3:36 And all the people acknowledged and it was good in their eyes, like everything that the king did was good in the eyes of all the people.
וַיֵּדְעוּ כָל־הָעָם וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי לֹא הָיְתָה מֵהַמֶּלֶךְ לְהָמִית אֶת־אַבְנֵר בֶּן־נֵר׃ 3:37
2Sam. 3:37 And all the people and all Israel knew on that day that it had not come from the king to slay Abner son of Ner.
וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הֲלוֹא תֵדְעוּ כִּי־שַׂר וְגָדוֹל נָפַל הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 3:38
2Sam. 3:38 And the king said to his servants, “Do you not know that a prince and a great one has fallen this day in Israel?”
וְאָנֹכִי הַיּוֹם רַךְ וּמָשׁוּחַ מֶלֶךְ וְהָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי צְרוּיָה קָשִׁים מִמֶּנִּי יְשַׁלֵּם יְהוָה לְעֹשֵׂה הָרָעָה 3:39 כְּרָעָתוֹ׃
2Sam. 3:39 “But today I am a weak king, although anointed, and these men, sons of Zeruiah, are harder than I am. Let the Lord make recompense to the doer of evil according to his wickedness.”
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