וַיְהִי בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וַיִּקְבְּצוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם לַצָּבָא לְהִלָּחֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אָכִישׁ אֶל־דָּוִד 28:1
יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע כִּי אִתִּי תֵּצֵא בַמַּחֲנֶה אַתָּה וַאֲנָשֶׁיךָ׃
1Sam. 28:1 And it was in those days that the Philistines assembled their hosts for battle to fight with Israel, and Achish said to David, “Surely you must know that you will go out with me in the army, you and your men.”
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אָכִישׁ לָכֵן אַתָּה תֵדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה עַבְדֶּךָ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכִישׁ אֶל־דָּוִד לָכֵן שֹׁמֵר 28:2 לְרֹאשִׁי אֲשִׂימְךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃
1Sam. 28:2 And David said to Achish, “Therefore you shall know what your servant can do.” And Achish said to David, “Therefore I shall appoint you the keeper of my head for ever.”
וּשְׁמוּאֵל מֵת וַיִּסְפְּדוּ־לוֹ כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בָרָמָה וּבְעִירוֹ וְשָׁאוּל הֵסִיר הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים 28:3 מֵהָאָרֶץ׃
1Sam. 28:3 Now Samuel had died and all of Israel had mourned for him and had buried him in Ramah, even in his own city. And Saul had turned away diviners with familiar spirits and with ghosts from the land.
וַיִּקָּבְצוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּחֲנוּ בְשׁוּנֵם וַיִּקְבֹּץ שָׁאוּל אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בַּגִּלְבֹּעַ׃ 28:4
1Sam. 28:4 And the Philistines assembled and camped in Shunem and Saul gathered together all Israel and they camped in Gilboa.
וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל אֶת־מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּרָא וַיֶּחֱרַד לִבּוֹ מְאֹד׃ 28:5
1Sam. 28:5 When Saul saw the host of the Philistines, then he was afraid and his heart trembled greatly.
וַיִּשְׁאַל שָׁאוּל בַּיהוָה וְלֹא עָנָהוּ יְהוָה גַּם בַּחֲלֹמוֹת גַּם בָּאוּרִים גַּם בַּנְּבִיאִם׃ 28:6
1Sam. 28:6 Then Saul inquired with the Lord but the Lord did not answer him, either in dreams or by urim, or by prophets.
וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַעֲבָדָיו בַּקְּשׁוּ־לִי אֵשֶׁת בַּעֲלַת־אוֹב וְאֵלְכָה אֵלֶיהָ וְאֶדְרְשָׁה־בָּהּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו 28:7 הִנֵּה אֵשֶׁת בַּעֲלַת־אוֹב בְּעֵין דּוֹר׃
1Sam. 28:7 So Saul said to his servants, “Seek a woman, a mistress of familiar spirits, for me that I may go to her and inquire with her.” And his servants said to him, “Behold, a woman, a mistress of familiar spirits, is in En-dor.
וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר 28:8 קסומי־קָסֳמִי־נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלָיִךְ׃
1Sam. 28:8 So Saul disguised himself and put on other clothes and went, he and two men with him, and they came to the woman at night, and he said, “Divine now for me by a ghost and bring up for me whomever I shall say to you.”
וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֵלָיו הִנֵּה אַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הִכְרִית אֶת־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶת־ 28:9
הַיִּדְּעֹנִי מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלָמָה אַתָּה מִתְנַקֵּשׁ בְּנַפְשִׁי לַהֲמִיתֵנִי׃
1Sam. 28:9 And the woman said to him, “Behold, you know what Saul did, that he cut off diviners with familiar spirits or ghosts from the land; so why are you setting a trap for my life to cause me to die?”
וַיִּשָּׁבַע לָהּ שָׁאוּל בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר חַי־יְהוָה אִם־יִקְּרֵךְ עָוֺן בַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃ 28:10
1Sam. 28:10 So Saul swore to her by the Lord saying, “As the Lord lives, punishment shall not befall you in this matter.”
וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מִי אַעֲלֶה־לָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל הַעֲלִי־לִי׃ 28:11
1Sam. 28:11 And the woman said, “Whom shall I bring up for you?” And he said, “Bring up Samuel for me.”
וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־שְׁמוּאֵל וַתִּזְעַק בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה רִמִּיתָנִי 28:12
1Sam. 28:12 When the woman saw Samuel, then she cried out with a loud voice, and the woman spoke to Saul saying, “Why did you deceive me? As you are Saul."
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי מָה רָאִית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל אֱלֹהִים רָאִיתִי עֹלִים מִן־ 28:13 הָאָרֶץ׃
1Sam. 28:13 And the king said to her, “Do not be afraid; but what do you see?” And the woman said to Saul, “I see a god-like figure coming up out of the earth.”
וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַה־תָּאֳרוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר אִישׁ זָקֵן עֹלֶה וְהוּא עֹטֶה מְעִיל וַיֵּדַע שָׁאוּל כִּי־שְׁמוּאֵל הוּא וַיִּקֹּד 28:14 אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ׃
1Sam. 28:14 And he said to her, “What is his appearance?” And she said, “An old man comes up and he has on a robe.” And Saul understood that he was Samuel, and he bowed, face to the earth, and prostrated himself.
וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־שָׁאוּל לָמָּה הִרְגַּזְתַּנִי לְהַעֲלוֹת אֹתִי וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל צַר־לִי מְאֹד וּפְלִשְׁתִּים 28:15 נִלְחָמִים בִּי וֵאלֹהִים סָר מֵעָלַי וְלֹא־עָנָנִי עוֹד גַּם בְּיַד־הַנְּבִיאִם גַּם־בַּחֲלֹמוֹת וָאֶקְרָאֶה לְךָ לְהוֹדִיעֵנִי מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה׃
1Sam. 28:15 And Samuel said to Saul, “Why have you troubled me to raise me?” And Saul said, “There is great trouble for me, as the Philistines are making war against me, and God has departed from being on me and does not answer me any more, not by the hand of prophets or in dreams. So I have called to you to make known to me what I should do.”
וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל וְלָמָּה תִּשְׁאָלֵנִי וַיהוָה סָר מֵעָלֶיךָ וַיְהִי עָרֶךָ׃ 28:16
1Sam. 28:16 Then Samuel said, “Then why should you ask me, when the Lord has departed from being on you and has become your Opponent?”
וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיָדִי וַיִּקְרַע יְהוָה אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה מִיָּדֶךָ וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְרֵעֲךָ לְדָוִד׃ 28:17
1Sam. 28:17 “And the Lord has done for Himself as He spoke by my hand, and the Lord has torn the kingdom from your hand and given it to your companion, to David?”
כַּאֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה וְלֹא־עָשִׂיתָ חֲרוֹן־אַפּוֹ בַּעֲמָלֵק עַל־כֵּן הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה עָשָׂה־לְךָ יְהוָה 28:18 הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃
1Sam. 28:18 “As you did not listen into the voice of the Lord and did not execute His fierce wrath against Amalek, for this thing, such the Lord has done to you this day.”
We can understand that the events of this chapter must have occurred much later than those of either Chapters 13 or 15, but we can also suspect that the events of Chapter 15 preceded those of Chapter 13. So do we finally have here the reason for Saul’s punishment? It would seem so. The events of Saul’s dealing with Amalek are related in Chapter 15. See my remarks at the end of Chapter 13 and Chapter 15.
וְיִתֵּן יְהוָה גַּם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמְּךָ בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמָחָר אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ עִמִּי גַּם אֶת־מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתֵּן 28:19 יְהוָה בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃
1Sam. 28:19 “And the Lord will also deliver Israel with you into the hand of the Philistines, so tomorrow you and your sons will be with me. Also the Lord will deliver the host of Israel into the hand of the Philistines.”
וַיְמַהֵר שָׁאוּל וַיִּפֹּל מְלֹא־קוֹמָתוֹ אַרְצָה וַיִּרָא מְאֹד מִדִּבְרֵי שְׁמוּאֵל גַּם־כֹּחַ לֹא־הָיָה בוֹ כִּי לֹא אָכַל 28:20 לֶחֶם כָּל־הַיּוֹם וְכָל־הַלָּיְלָה׃
1Sam. 28:20 Then Saul collapsed and fell his full length to the ground as he was very frightened by the words of Samuel; also there was no strength in him because he had not eaten food all day or all night.
וַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַתֵּרֶא כִּי־נִבְהַל מְאֹד וַתֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה שָׁמְעָה שִׁפְחָתְךָ בְּקוֹלֶךָ וָאָשִׂים 28:21 נַפְשִׁי בְּכַפִּי וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֵלָי׃
1Sam. 28:21 And the woman came to Saul and realized how very afraid he was, and she said to him, “Behold, your handmaid listened into your voice as I put my life in my hand and heeded your words that you spoke to me.”
This verse contains two first-person imperfect verbs with non-inverting vavs. They are ~yfia'w, translated as as I put, and ~yfia'w, translated as and heeded.
וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע־נָא גַם־אַתָּה בְּקוֹל שִׁפְחָתֶךָ וְאָשִׂמָה לְפָנֶיךָ פַּת־לֶחֶם וֶאֱכוֹל וִיהִי בְךָ כֹּחַ כִּי תֵלֵךְ 28:22 בַּדָּרֶךְ׃
1Sam. 28:22 “So now listen, I pray you, also you, into the voice of your handmaid, and let me set a piece of bread before you, and eat so there will be strength in you when you go on the way.”
This verse contains another first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav. It is hm'fia'w, translated as let me set.
וַיְמָאֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֹכַל וַיִּפְרְצוּ־בוֹ עֲבָדָיו וְגַם־הָאִשָּׁה וַיִּשְׁמַע לְקֹלָם וַיָּקָם מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיֵּשֶׁב 28:23
1Sam. 28:23 But he refused and said, “I will not eat.” But his servants pressed on him, and also the woman, and he listened to their voice and arose from the earth and sat by the bed.
וְלָאִשָּׁה עֵגֶל־מַרְבֵּק בַּבַּיִת וַתְּמַהֵר וַתִּזְבָּחֵהוּ וַתִּקַּח־קֶמַח וַתָּלָשׁ וַתֹּפֵהוּ מַצּוֹת׃ 28:24
1Sam. 28:24 And there was a calf of the fattening stall of the woman’s in the house, and she hurried and slaughtered it; then she took meal and kneaded and baked unleavened breads.
וַתַּגֵּשׁ לִפְנֵי־שָׁאוּל וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיֹּאכֵלוּ וַיָּקֻמוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא׃ 28:25
1Sam. 28:25 Then she brought before Saul and before his servants and they ate. Then they arose and they departed on that night.
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