1Samuel 27


וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־לִבּוֹ עַתָּה אֶסָּפֶה יוֹם־אֶחָד בְּיַד־שָׁאוּל אֵין־לִי טוֹב כִּי הִמָּלֵט אִמָּלֵט אֶל־אֶרֶץ   27:1 פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְנוֹאַשׁ מִמֶּנִּי שָׁאוּל לְבַקְשֵׁנִי עוֹד בְּכָל־גְּבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִמְלַטְתִּי מִיָּדוֹ׃

1Sam. 27:1   And David said to his heart, “Now one day I may be swept away by the hand of Saul.  There is nothing better for me than I should quietly slip away to the land of the Philistines.  Then Saul will despair of me to seek me any more in all the territory of Israel, and I will escape from his hand.”

וַיָּקָם דָּוִד וַיַּעֲבֹר הוּא וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר עִמּוֹ אֶל־אָכִישׁ בֶּן־מָעוֹךְ מֶלֶךְ גַּת׃  27:2

1Sam. 27:2   So David arose and crossed over, he and the six hundred men who were with him, to Achish, the son of Maoch, king of Gath.

וַיֵּשֶׁב דָּוִד עִם־אָכִישׁ בְּגַת הוּא וַאֲנָשָׁיו אִישׁ וּבֵיתוֹ דָּוִד וּשְׁתֵּי נָשָׁיו אֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵאלִית וַאֲבִיגַיִל   27:3 אֵשֶׁת־נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִית׃

1Sam. 27:3   And David lived with Achish in Gath, he and his men, each with his household, David with both of his wives, Achinoam, the Jezreelitess, and Abigail, the wife of Nabal, the Carmelitess.

וַיֻּגַּד לְשָׁאוּל כִּי־בָרַח דָּוִד גַּת וְלֹא־ (יוֹסַף) [יָסַף] עוֹד לְבַקְשׁוֹ׃   27:4

1Sam. 27:4   And it was told to Saul that David had fled to Gath and he did not continue any more to seek him.

We have another error in this verse, an extra vav in the word in parentheses, the correction being made within the brackets.

וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אָכִישׁ אִם־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ יִתְּנוּ־לִי מָקוֹם בְּאַחַת עָרֵי הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵשְׁבָה שָּׁם   27:5 וְלָמָּה יֵשֵׁב עַבְדְּךָ בְּעִיר הַמַּמְלָכָה עִמָּךְ׃

1Sam. 27:5   And David said to Achish, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, let them give a place in one of the country towns to me and I will dwell there.  For why should your servant dwell in the royal city with you?”

וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אָכִישׁ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־צִקְלָג לָכֵן הָיְתָה צִקְלַג לְמַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃   27:6

1Sam. 27:6   So Achish on that day gave Ziklag to him.  Therefore Ziklag was for the kings of Judah until this day.

We have another clue as to the time of this writing.  There had apparently been a number of kings of Judah already.  Moreover, the phrase until this day implies that Ziklag was still for the kings of Judah.  So the time of this writing was likely some time before the Babylonian exile, not during or after it.

וַיְהִי מִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־יָשַׁב דָּוִד בִּשְׂדֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים יָמִים וְאַרְבָּעָה חֳדָשִׁים׃   27:7

1Sam. 27:7   And the number of days that David lived in the country of the Philistines was a year and four months.

וַיַּעַל דָּוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו וַיִּפְשְׁטוּ אֶל־הַגְּשׁוּרִי (וְהַגִּרְזִי) [וְהַגִּזְרִי] וְהָעֲמָלֵקִי כִּי הֵנָּה יֹשְׁבוֹת הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר   27:8

  מֵעוֹלָם בּוֹאֲךָ שׁוּרָה וְעַד־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃

1Sam. 27:8   And David would go up with his men and make raids on the Geshurite, or the Gizrite, or the Amalekite, for they were the inhabitants of the land, who were from old times, of your approach to Shur and as far as the land of Egypt.

The error in this verse is somewhat surprising.  Such an error occurs rarely.  Two letters, the resh and the zion are interchanged.  The correction is made in the brackets.

וְהִכָּה דָוִד אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא יְחַיֶּה אִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה וְלָקַח צֹאן וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וּגְמַלִּים וּבְגָדִים וַיָּשָׁב וַיָּבֹא   27:9 אֶל־אָכִישׁ׃

1Sam. 27:9   And David would smite the land and would not let man or woman live but would take sheep and oxen and asses and camels and apparel.  Then he would return and come to Achish.

וַיֹּאמֶר אָכִישׁ אַל־פְּשַׁטְתֶּם הַיּוֹם וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד עַל־נֶגֶב יְהוּדָה וְעַל־נֶגֶב הַיַּרְחְמְאֵלִי וְאֶל־נֶגֶב הַקֵּינִי׃   27:10

1Sam. 27:10   And Achish would say, “Did you not make a raid today?”  And David would say, “Against the south of Judah,” or “Against the south of the Jerachmeelites,” or “To the south of the Kenites.”

וְאִישׁ וְאִשָּׁה לֹא־יְחַיֶּה דָוִד לְהָבִיא גַת לֵאמֹר פֶּן־יַגִּדוּ עָלֵינוּ לֵאמֹר כֹּה־עָשָׂה דָוִד וְכֹה מִשְׁפָּטוֹ   27:11

 כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר יָשַׁב בִּשְׂדֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים׃

1Sam. 27:11   And David would not let man or woman live to bring to Gath thinking, “Lest they would tell on us to say, ‘Thus has David done, and thus has been his manner all the days that he has lived in the country of the Philistines.”

וַיַּאֲמֵן אָכִישׁ בְּדָוִד לֵאמֹר הַבְאֵשׁ הִבְאִישׁ בְּעַמּוֹ בְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהָיָה לִי לְעֶבֶד עוֹלָם׃   27:12

1Sam. 27:12   And Achish trusted in David saying, “He has made himself utterly abhorred by his people in Israel; therefore he may be mine for a servant for ever.”


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